What are the characteristics of a Momin according to Allah? How does their self develop and grow? It creates a revolution in the internal world of human beings. This happens according to Quranic values. Whatever way this happens it is a reflection of Allah’s attributes on a smaller scale.
Allah has called this: (صِبْغَةَ اللَّهِ 2:138) – i.e., to get colored by the color of Allah, which develops the human self and personality. Allah is complete and perfect and has the most perfect attributes, so one cannot use the word “developed” for Allah.
Who is a Momin?
The attributes of Allah serve as an objective universal absolute standard to measure how much Momineen’s character reflects those attributes of Allah. Everything the Quran says is meant for us. And whatever Allah says about Himself is also about us. It means whatever situation confronts us we need to see from the Quran what should be our response. What attribute of Allah should our character reflect in that situation.
Momin is one who imbibes the attributes of Allah in his character within human limitation. He does this with one hundred percent sincerity without any compulsion. This goes deep inside his heart and he responds to situations with full willingness and acceptance of his heart. This is the way his “self” develops and strengthens.
Allama Iqbal puts it this way:
Human’s priceless value is only because of his ‘self’
Oyster’s value is only because it turns drop into gem
Momin’s response in life reflects Allah’s attribute
If a human “self” has developed, then his reaction to events in life should be according to the Quran. This is the basis of our relationship with Allah. The attributes of Allah are most balanced and perfect. They are absolute, and objective model for us.
The personality of a Momin is the reflection of the attributes of Allah, within human limitation. Our behavior, therefore, should reflect the appropriate attribute commensurate with the situation at hand.
Under the light of Qur'an
The Quran says about them:
وَالَّذِينَ يَجْتَنِبُونَ كَبَائِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَالْفَوَاحِشَ وَإِذَا مَا غَضِبُوا هُمْ يَغْفِرُونَ (42:37) –
And who shun the more heinous sins and abominations; and who, whenever they are moved to anger, readily forgive.
Such people abstain from heinous crimes which weaken the human ‘self’ as well as from acts which tend to incite universal abomination and selfishness. In a situation when someone says something unintentionally and bring about an angry reaction, then Momineen do not retaliate but readily exonerate and try to protect and guide them to channel their energy into positive direction.
Momineen protect themselves from strategic errors in implementing Divine system of Sustenance. Quran says:
وَالَّذِينَ اسْتَجَابُوا لِرَبِّهِمْ وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَأَمْرُهُمْ شُورَىٰ بَيْنَهُمْ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ (42:38) –
And who respond to [the call of] their Sustainer and are constant in prayer; and whose rule [in all matters of common concern] is consultation among themselves; and who spend on others out of what We provide for them as sustenance.
Attributes of a Momin
These are the people who respond to the call and come forward to establish the Devine System of Universal Sustenance. They obey Allah’s Laws and remain within the bounds of the System of Salaah, which teaches them to decide their affairs through mutual consultations and according to Divine Laws.
Furthermore, they keep open for the nourishment of other (needy) human beings, most of whatever means of sustenance which they have been provided with. In effect, they retain for themselves only what is necessary for their own survival.
Thus the collective life of entire society is governed under these laws. And strategic errors, that are humanly possible in real life implementation of these laws, are corrected with mutual consultation of all; and thus the system moves forward.
Holy Prophet ﷺ
The Prophet ﷺ was ordered to consult with all the Momineen for solving any issues that propped up in the society:
وَأَمْرُهُمْ شُورَىٰ بَيْنَهُمْ (42:38).
The Prophet ﷺ was the Messenger chosen by Allah. He was the head of the Divine State. He was the recipient of Allah’s Revelation; and he was being ordered by Allah to consult with all Momin to resolve issues related to errors in the implementation of the divine program.
Imagine! We cannot be Muslim unless we have Iman on the Prophet ﷺ. We have to have Iman on everything that Prophet ﷺ conveyed as the revelation by Allah – and he is being ordered to consult with Momineen about strategic mistakes that might happen in implementation details of Revelation in real life!
And when the Prophet ﷺ finally decided anything then:
فَلَا وَرَبِّكَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ حَتَّىٰ يُحَكِّمُوكَ فِيمَا شَجَرَ بَيْنَهُمْ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُوا فِي أَنفُسِهِمْ حَرَجًا مِّمَّا قَضَيْتَ وَيُسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمً (4:65) –
But nay, by thy Sustainer! They do not [really] believe unless they make thee [O Prophet] a judge of all on which they disagree among themselves, and then find in their hearts no bar to an acceptance of thy decision and give themselves up [to it] in utter self-surrender.
Qur'an: The ultimate guide
Allah stands witness that these persons cannot claim to be Momineen until they make you (O Messenger) the judge in their disputes and thereafter do not find any vexation in their hearts over what you decide, and submit to your decisions wholeheartedly.
Therefore, there was no question of Prophet ﷺ making a decision without consultation of all Momineen. Since the Prophet ﷺ was ordered by Allah to do that. If the Prophet ﷺ was not given an exception from consultation, then how can anyone else be given exception?
The Quran provides the basis to establish the system of universal sustenance in the real life: وَمِمَّارَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ (42:38).
Momineen do not hoard what Allah has given them (70:18). After their basic needs are met, they keep their wealth open for the needs of others. Everyone in the Islamic system is required to do this: Give the surplus to the Central Treasury which will provide the sustenance to those who are not able to meet their needs due to any reason.
Everyone in this system will work extremely hard (who are able to) and their surplus wealth goes to the Central Treasury. This is the Islamic Economic System which will take care of all Muslims. And all matters – political, economic, social, etc. – will be decided together within the boundaries of the Quranic values and principles.
The Divine System
This is the Divine System that the Momineen of the first period of Islam practically established for the entire society as shown by our Prophet ﷺ and his fellows.
هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَائِكَتُهُ لِيُخْرِجَكُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَحِيمًا
(33:43) – He it is who bestows His blessings upon you, with His angels [echoing Him], so that He might take you out of the depths of darkness into the light. And, indeed, a dispenser of grace is He unto the believers.
We need to understand the right path for a Momin is the path shown to us by Allah.