Universal Laws Govern Nature and the Human World

The fundamental point of the teaching of the Quran is the Universal Law of Requital – the law of action and its consequent result. The outcome of every human action – whether individual or collective – is determined by this law. 

فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ

(99:7) – And so, he who shall have done an atom's weight of good, shall behold it.

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ

(99:8) – and he who shall have done an atom's weight of evil, shall behold it. 

لَّيْسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمْ وَلَا أَمَانِيِّ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ ۗ مَن يَعْمَلْ سُوءًا يُجْزَ بِهِ وَلَا يَجِدْ لَهُ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا

(4:123) – It may not accord with your wishful thinking - nor with the wishful thinking of the followers of earlier revelation - [that] he who does evil shall be requited for it, and shall find none to protect him from God, and none to bring him succor. [Asad]

وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِنَ الصَّالِحَاتِ مِن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَأُولَٰئِكَ يَدْخُلُونَ الْجَنَّةَ وَلَا يُظْلَمُونَ نَقِيرًا

(4:124) –Whereas anyone - be it man or woman - who does [whatever he can] of good deeds and is a believer withal, shall enter paradise, and shall not be wronged by as much as [would fill] the groove of a date-stone. [Asad]  

The Quran keeps on reminding us that everything in the Universe and in the human world happens according to law. In the Universe, it happens according to the Laws of Nature and in the human world, it happens according to the Law of Requital. In the human world, even thoughts produce outcomes according to the Law of Requital. 

وَذَرُوا ظَاهِرَ الْإِثْمِ وَبَاطِنَهُ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَكْسِبُونَ الْإِثْمَ سَيُجْزَوْنَ بِمَا كَانُوا يَقْتَرِفُونَ

(6:120) – But abstain from sinning, be it open or secret-for, behold, those who commit sins shall be requited for all that they have earned. [Asad]

Optimum regulation of human society

The Quran provides universal permanent values and principles that provide laws for an optimum regulation of individual as well as collective life. The Quran explains its essential teaching in many different ways to drive home this central point: that every action produces its consequent result.

Fundamentally, there are two styles that the Quran uses to drive home its teaching. It presents the external Universe and asks human beings to look at how everything in it is subject to laws – from the smallest particles such as electrons, protons, and neutrons to the gigantic astronomical objects such as planets, stars, and galaxies. They are working so beautifully because none of them violates any of the laws that govern them. They do not have the right to violate the laws of nature. So, the Quran asks humans to observe and learn from them that these objects work so beautifully and holistically and produce universal results because these objects follow universal laws. Electrons are subject to the same law no matter where they are. This is a universal law and the result is the same everywhere. 

The Quran does not just address individual human life but it also addresses collective human life. It asks humans to learn from the history of past nations. What kind of collective system of life that they devised for themselves and what was the outcome? The collective system of life is thus governed by the second set of divine laws pertaining to human societies. 

Past history of nations provides the test data as proof of this second set of divine laws. If a nation adopted divine principles and laws to regulate its collective life then the result was good, otherwise not. If we keep in mind this fundamental reality, then we will find that the verses of the Quran are holistically and thematically linked together from beginning to end as it is in the case of nature. In the words of Allama Iqbal: if we split the heart of an atom on earth then its effect is felt on the Sun. The astronomer James Jeans says that if I wave my finger then its effect is felt in the galaxies. This is how the Quran brings facts from Nature to provide proof of its claims about optimal governance of the collective life of human society. 

Cosmologists say that the Universe is perfectly balanced although every object is moving so fast that even a minute change in speed of any of its cosmological objects will create a chain reaction that will lead to total destruction of the Universe. So, one can only imagine the enormous power and control Allah exercises over the Universe. 

Everything is created in pairs

The Quran says:

 وَمِن كُلِّ شَيْءٍ خَلَقْنَا زَوْجَيْنِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ 

(51:49) – And all things We have created by pairs, that haply ye may reflect. [Pickthall]

Allah has created everything with its counterpart, such that each object perfectly pairs with the other and becomes the source for complementing it; so that humans may ponder on The Almighty Sustainer’s creations.  

No one could have said this 1,400 years ago that everything (كُلِّ شَيْءٍ) has its زَوْجَ (Zauj), i.e., a thing becomes complete in its function and is able to properly develop only with the other which is called its زَوْجَ (Zauj) in Arabic. This is not just the question of male and female. This is what scientists have discovered now that everything has a complement.

Warning by divine messengers

Allah has explained all this so that we could become aware of the universality of Allah’s authority and hasten to adopt the path indicated by Him, leaving aside all other erroneous ways. The Messenger’s duty is to continue warning his people about the disastrous consequences of an erroneous way of life. The Quran says about the Prophet (PBUH) that he openly declared to his people: I have not appointed a compeller upon you (88:22). I do not want any reward or compensation from you (34:47, 25:57). 

فَفِرُّوا إِلَى اللَّهِ ۖ إِنِّي لَكُم مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ

(51:50) – And so, [O Muhammad, say unto them:] “Flee unto God [from all that is false and evil]! Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him! [Asad]

The word مُّبِينٌ (Mubeen) means that this message is very clear and evident. What could be more evident than providing proof of this divine claim from Nature and the history of past nations? So, therefore, hurry fast to establish the divine system based on its permanent values.

And do not adopt anyone else’s laws or authority:

 وَلَا تَجْعَلُوا مَعَ اللَّـهِ إِلَـٰهًا آخَرَ ۖ إِنِّي لَكُم مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ 

(51:51) – And do not ascribe divinity to aught side by side with God: verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him!” [Asad]

إِلَـٰهً (Ilah) is one who is obeyed, whose authority is accepted – and no one else is to be obeyed, no one else’s authority is to be accepted. It is demeaning and dehumanizing to accept anyone else’s authority besides Allah. There are those who worship natural objects in ignorance and superstition. On the same lines, we started worshipping while justifying that we do not keep idols or natural objects in front of us. But nevertheless, we keep saying that we are worshipping God. This is purely a mental thing. But if we kept the true meaning of إِلَـٰهً (Ilah) in front of us that we have to obey Allah; that we have to accept only His Sovereignty and authority of governance and of no else’s – then the situation will change drastically. And the Quran repeats again:

 إِنِّي لَكُم مِّنْهُ نَذِيرٌ مُّبِينٌ 

(51:50; 50:51) – Verily, I am a plain warner to you from Him! [Asad]

This is to emphasize the importance that whatever the messenger is saying, is for your own benefit and there is no benefit in it for the messenger. He is just a warner.

All divine messengers were ridiculed by their people 

Then the Quran says:

 كَذَٰلِكَ مَا أَتَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِم مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا قَالُوا سَاحِرٌ أَوْ مَجْنُونٌ 

(51:52) – [But] thus it is: never yet came any apostle to those who lived before their time but they said, “A spellbinder [Lit., "sorcerer".] [is he], or a madman!” [Asad]

Their people said all kinds of outrageous things to every messenger who came to them – that they were either liars, or deceitful, or insane. Also, they made fun of them. 

مَا يَأْتِيهِم مِّن رَّسُولٍ إِلَّا كَانُوا بِهِ يَسْتَهْزِئُونَ

(36:30) – Never has an apostle come to them without their deriding him! [Asad]

سَحِر (Sehr) in essence means falsehood – that is, something which looks different than what it really is. That is what magic really is. It is falsehood. The Quran says that when messengers told their people that they are conveying to them the message from Allah then they were disparaged and vilified by their people and labeled سَاحِر (Sahir) or liars because what the messengers said went against their ancestral belief. 

Thus the continuity of a (false) belief handed down by ancestors becomes proof of the truth of that (false) belief. In Sharia terminology, this is called “Tawatur” or “Taqlid” or the passing of a belief from generation to generation. That is how one who initially propagates a false belief becomes famous after the passage of time, and his personality more or less becomes proof of what he said, and the Quran no longer remains the primary touchstone for proof. Every generation cries that Muslims have turned away from Islam but continues to follow the Sharia handed down to it from the previous generation and continues to believe in “Taqlid” and “Tawatur.”

The main reason for believing in “Tawatur”  

The Quran says that the reason they believe in “Tawatur” is something else. They use Sharia to dupe people into believing a false belief as if it is from God. But their main reason is preserving self-interest by transgressing divine laws:

 أَتَوَاصَوْا بِهِ ۚ بَلْ هُمْ قَوْمٌ طَاغُونَ 

(51:53) – Have they, perchance, handed down this [way of thinking] as a legacy unto one another? Nay, they are people filled with overweening arrogance! [Asad]

That is, they teach transgression against the divine code of law to each generation because in the divine code there is no place for capitalism, priesthood, and human rule over humans. The crooked argument in support of “Tawatur” that is presented is that if this has been passed on for generations then it has to be right; that if it was not true then it would not have been passed on generation after generation. What kind of proof is this? At least one should produce some independent and objective proof in support of this argument. Since the supporters of “Taqlid” don’t have one, they keep on using “Tawatur” itself as proof for maintaining the status quo because it benefits them.

Kingship changed the Prophet’s (PBUH) system 

Our entire history is against Islam ever since Yazid changed the Prophet’s (PBUH) system and laid the foundation of Malukiyah. Ever since then all the Muslim governments have continued on the path of “Tawatur” as an authority and continued the Malukiyah in one form or the other. But there is only one authority in Islam and this is the Quran’s authority. The Quran boldly proclaims that do not take any authority besides Allah:

 وَلَا تَجْعَلُوا مَعَ اللَّـهِ إِلَـٰهًا آخَرَ   

(51:51) – And do not ascribe divinity to aught side by side with God. [Asad]

Momineen’s life benefits humanity

The Quran, on the other hand, proclaims that the purpose of Momineen’s life is to conquer the forces of nature and keep its benefit open to all humankind:

 وَسَخَّرَ لَكُم مَّا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ جَمِيعًا مِّنْهُ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِّقَوْمٍ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ 

(45:13) – And He has made subservient to you, [as a gift] from Himself, all that is in the heavens and on earth: in this, behold, there are messages indeed for people who think! [Asad]

Allah has made everything in the heavens and in the earth subservient to humans, and He has given them the ability to conquer the forces of nature. And herein are signs for those who think and reflect that whoever acquires knowledge of the Laws which govern all activities in the universe, will be able to control these forces and must utilize them for the benefit of humankind because Momineen’s life requires that one must also follow divine commands in order to live a collective life. That is why the purpose of creating human beings is that they are supposed to surrender to (i.e., obey) only Allah’s commands and no one else’s. 

The establishment of this Divine Order will not benefit Allah the Almighty. It will bring good only to humankind. Allah does not want anything from His subjects (51:57). This is unlike our social, political, religious, or spiritual leaders who enjoy all the benefits at the expense of others. Others work hard to support them. Allah does not need anything from anyone. In fact, He created everything and has power over everything and everyone. So, why would He need anything from anyone:

  إِنَّ اللَّـهَ هُوَ الرَّزَّاقُ ذُو الْقُوَّةِ الْمَتِينُ 

(51:58) – Verily, God Himself is the Provider of all sustenance, the Lord of all might, the Eternal! [Asad]

What can Allah expect from His subjects? He is the One Who Himself provides sustenance to all creation. All power and strength belong to Him. Similarly, the Momineen who will establish the universal social order according to Allah’s Laws will also not ask for anything for their own benefit. They will only work for the benefit of all humankind.

Those following the wrong path

 فَإِنَّ لِلَّذِينَ ظَلَمُوا ذَنُوبًا مِّثْلَ ذَنُوبِ أَصْحَابِهِمْ فَلَا يَسْتَعْجِلُونِ 

(51:59) – And, verily, they who are bent on doing evil shall have their share [of evil] like unto the share of their fellows [of old]: so let them not ask Me to hasten [their doom]! [Asad] 

But if these people (do not fulfill the objective of their creation and) rebel against it, then their end result will be the same as that of earlier nations that had adopted a similar attitude. However, this will appear in its own time. These people should not be in haste. By the time the cumulative effects of their wrong actions are accounted for, they will be doomed. This is the negative aspect of life. 

The positive aspect of life is that only that system will stay forever which is beneficial to all humankind:

 وَأَمَّا مَا يَنفَعُ النَّاسَ فَيَمْكُثُ فِي الْأَرْضِ 

(13:17) – but that which is of benefit to man abides on earth. [Asad]

As a result of the conflict between truth and falsehood the negative forces pass away like scum but that which is beneficial for humanity endures.

وَقُلْ جَاءَ الْحَقُّ وَزَهَقَ الْبَاطِلُ ۚ إِنَّ الْبَاطِلَ كَانَ زَهُوقًا

(17:81) – And say: “The truth has now come [to light], and falsehood has withered away: for, behold, all falsehood is bound to wither away!”

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