How did Muslims Conquer The Levant? - Arab-Byzantine Wars - Part 2
The early Muslim conquests, also referred to as the Arab conquests and the early Islamic conquests began with the prophet Muhammad (PBUH) in the 7th century. He established a new unified polity in the Arabian Peninsula which under the subsequent Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates saw a century of rapid expansion.
When Muhammad died, Abu Bakr became his successor with the title of Caliph in Medina. After Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali maintained the Rashidun Caliphate and embarked upon new missions to spread their power and faith across the region.
During the first caliph’s reign, some of the displeased Arab tribes engaged in the Ridda Wars, or Wars of Apostasy, with the Caliphate’s troops. Following Muhammad’s passing, a handful of the tribes had broken ties with the Caliphate, stating that their allegiance to Muhammad was purely a personal loyalty, and some of the tribe’s leaders went as far as claiming to be the prophet’s successor in prophethood, which sparked the discord. Although the conflict did require military engagement, Abu Bakr and his men were quickly able to suppress the rebellions through both war and diplomacy and consolidate their power over the Arabian Peninsula so they could shift their focus outward.
( Source: Knowledgia )