Prophet Ayyub (Job) عليه السلام is described briefly in the Quran, but he is described in detail in the Bible.
He was born several hundred years before Jesus Christ in the plains stretching from Syria to Palestine. In the Bible, his place of birth is identified as the land of Uz, which is located in the northwestern part of the current-day Arabian Peninsula.
According to the Bible, he possessed seven thousand sheep, three thousand camels, five hundred oxen, five hundred she-asses, and a prosperous household. He was considered one of the greatest of all the men of the east.
After some time, a series of misfortunes befell him and left him impoverished. Still, Prophet Ayyub عليه السلام was the epitome of patience.
In the words of the Bible, .. Job got up and tore his robe and shaved his head. Then he fell to the ground in worship and said, “Naked I came from my mother’s womb, and naked I will depart. The Lord gave and the Lord has taken away; may the name of the Lord be praised.” (Job 1:20-21)
After some time, Prophet Ayyub’s fortunes changed and he again came to possess large amounts of wealth and resources, even more than he had before.
According to Bible, “The Lord blessed the latter part of Job’s life more than the former part. He had fourteen thousand sheep, six thousand camels, a thousand oxen, and a thousand mules.” (Job 42:12)
The Quran adds to the story of Prophet Ayyub عليه السلام with:
And We restored his family for him, and their like with them; as a mercy from Us, and a lesson for those who possess insight.
The story of Prophet Ayyub Although gives a fundamental lesson that one should never despair when afflicted by misfortune. God, being All-Merciful, has devised the system of this world in such a way that no material loss or gain is final. Here, one can always overcome one’s misfortunes and regain their fortune provided they remain patient and persevere in their struggles never losing hope of God's assistance.
Following verses, hadith, and words of wisdom provide us an insight into patience, which is a basic quality required of a believer to shape their life when they are confronted with challenges.
Guidance from the Quran
The Arabic root word for patience is SBR (ص ب ر). It is mentioned 103 times in the Quran referring to: patient, patience, patient ones, steadfast, endure, endurance, constant, patient women, patient men, bear patience and patiently endured.
O ye who believe! seek help with patient perseverance and prayer; for Allah is with those who patiently persevere
Whatever you have will end, but whatever Allah has is everlasting. And We will certainly reward the patient according to the best of their deeds.
These believers will be given a double reward for their perseverance in responding to evil with good for donating from what We have provided for them.
Guidance from the Prophet Muhammad ﷺ
An Ansari person asked for (something) from Allah's Apostle ﷺ and he gave them. They again asked him for (something) and he again gave them. And then they asked him and he gave them again till all that was with him finished. And then he said "If I had anything. I would not keep it away from you. (Remember) Whoever abstains from asking others, Allah will make him contented, and whoever tries to make himself self-sufficient, Allah will make him self-sufficient. And whoever remains patient, Allah will make him patient. Nobody can be given a blessing better and greater than patience."
Guidance from the companion of the Prophet
Referring to historians, Imam Ali said, "Time is two days: A day for you, and a day against you." He further explained giving the example of the Koran, which also deals with historical events insofar as they teach something about the human relationship with God, he reminded people of two of the primary virtues that need to be cultivated: "When time is for you, give thanks to God, and when it is against you, have patience.”
The first part above is adapted from the book Simple Wisdom by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan