Eid al-Adha: An Opportunity for Augmenting Our Reliance and Obedience to Allah

Eid al-Adha also known as the Festival of Sacrifice or Qurbani, is one of the most important Islamic festivals celebrated by Muslims worldwide.

This joyous occasion commemorates the profound act of sacrifice by Prophet Ibrahim and his willingness to offer his son as an act of obedience and submission to Allah, the Almighty. The traditions associated with Eid al-Adha hold deep meaning and significance, emphasizing the values of faith, selflessness and gratitude.

1. Ritualistic Sacrifice in the Past

We know from Islamic tradition that the act of sacrifice began from the dawn of the human civilization on the earth. Habil and Qabil, two sons of Adam Alaihis Salam (AS) offered first sacrifice for Allah in known history. They offered their crops as sacrifice. Habil’s sacrifice was accepted by Allah while Qabil’s sacrifice was not accepted.

Habil was a pious man whose sacrifice was accepted because of his piety. Qabil’s sacrifice was not accepted because he offered the worst crops as sacrifice and was not sincere in offering the sacrifice. Animal sacrifice was common among many ancient nations as a part of culture and religious tradition. Allah Subhanahu Wa T'ala (SWT) says in the Qur'an:

وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ جَعَلْنَا مَنسَكًا لِيَذْكُرُوا اسْمَ اللَّهِ عَلَى مَا رَزَقَهُم مِّن بَهِيمَةِ الْأَنْعَامِ فَإِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ فَلَهُ أَسْلِمُوا وَبَشِّرِ الْمُخْبِتِينَ

“And for every nation have We appointed a ritual, that they may mention the name of Allah over the beast of cattle that He hath given them for food; and your god is One God, therefore surrender unto Him. And give good tidings (O Muhammad) to the humble,” - [Qur'an 22:34].

Thus we know from this verse that the rite of animal sacrifice was ordained for every nation living on the earth from the beginning of human history. It can be ascertained that there were instructions of sacrifice in the scriptures revealed from Allah (SWT) to the previous nations.

However, those scriptures are not preserved today in original form and we cannot know anything about the true ancient traditions of animal sacrifice.

2. The Essence of Sacrifice

Behind every divine commandment there must be a purpose of our Lord, Allah. Always there are immense benefits for us in obeying His commands. As His servants we need to sense the purpose of that commands and obey it sincerely to reap the maximum benefit of it.

So, in order to gain the benefit of the act of sacrifice we need to understand its importance and the spirit behind it. Describing the essence of ‘Qurbani’, Allah (SWT) says in the Qur'an:

لَن يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَى مِنكُمْ كَذَلِكَ سَخَّرَهَا لَكُمْ لِتُكَبِّرُوا اللَّهَ عَلَى مَا هَدَاكُمْ وَبَشِّرِ الْمُحْسِنِينَ

“It is neither their meat nor their blood that reaches Allah, but it is piety from you that reaches Him. Thus, We have made them subject to you that you may magnify Allah for His Guidance to you. And give glad tidings to the Muhsinun (doers of good).” - [Qur’an 22:37].

This verse clarifies that neither the meat nor the blood of the animal sacrificed reaches to Allah. What reaches to Him is the piety and sincerity of His servants. Dedication and‘Takwa’ behind the sacrifice is only important to Allah (SWT). Hence, complete submission and reliance on Allah only under all circumstances and for all affairs, is the essence of sacrifice in Islam.

3. Trials of Prophet Ibrahim (AS)

From Muslim perspectives Prophet Ibrahim (AS) is considered as one of the greatest men in the history. Many prominent Prophets mentioned to us in the Qur’an came through his lineage that includes Muhammad (ﷺ), the last and the final Prophet.

Prophet Ibrahim (AS)’s journey is marked by a series of tests and trials, all aimed at strengthening his faith and devotion to Allah (SWT). Through each test, Ibrahim (AS) demonstrated his solid trust in Allah, even when faced with seemingly insurmountable challenges.

He passed early stage of his life contemplating on the existence of Allah. At this stage he was indeed tested with various choices of demigods like planet, moon, sun and the like. He remained firm and continued his enquiry until he eventually found Allah, the only one God. This was also a sign of his high intellect and superior thinking. During the growth of Ibrahim’s faith, he defeated Namrud, the King of the land in an open debate manifesting his superior intellectual capability.

His faith was tested with death by fire. At the point of being thrown into the blazing fire, he kept his reliance only on Allah (SWT). This reliance on Allah granted him the enjoyment of the peace of paradise within the fire and he left the fire unscathed. Throughout all the tests, Ibrahim (AS) never wavered from his faith and submission to Allah (SWT), the one God. The example of his perseverance teaches Muslims the importance of relying on Allah’s guidance and trusting that He will provide the best outcome, even in the most difficult of circumstances.

Allah granted Ibrahim (AS) a son at a very old age. When this beloved son, Ismail (AS) was a young boy, Ibrahim (AS) saw in a dream that he was sacrificing his son. Since the dreams of the Prophets are true, Ibrahim (AS) deduced that it was a command of Allah. This was the hardest of all the tests he was put to face in his lifetime.

Despite his profound love for his son, Ibrahim (AS) resolved to fulfill this command demonstrating his unwavering faith and obedience to Allah (SWT). Ibrahim (AS) told his son, Ismail of his dream who later became a prophet himself. Ismail had an equally unwavering faith in Allah (SWT) and submitted himself. Ismail (AS) assured that he would be steadfast in enabling his father to fulfill Allah’s command.

When Ibrahim (AS) was about to carry out the sacrifice, Allah intervened and replaced his son with a ram, signifying that his willingness to submit to Allah's command was sufficient. Allah (SWT) has given a heart touching description of this event in the Qur'an:

وَنَادَيْنَاهُ أَنْ يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ - قَدْ صَدَّقْتَ الرُّؤْيَا إِنَّا كَذَلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ - إِنَّ هَذَا لَهُوَ الْبَلَاء الْمُبِينُ

“And We called out to him saying: O Ibrahim! You have indeed shown the truth of the vision; surely thus do We reward the doers of good. Most surely this is a manifest trial.”- [Qur'an 37:104-106].

This was the most remarkable trial for Prophet Ibrahim (AS) and his glorious success in this trial serves as a source of inspiration for Muslims worldwide highlighting the importance of faith, trust, and submission to the will of Allah. This great trial along with many others which Prophet Ibrahim (AS) successfully underwent raised his status so much so that he was made the ‘Khaleel’ (friend or beloved one) of Allah (SWT).

Besides it, his name along with that of the last Prophet is preserved even to this day in all of our prayers, we always mention the name of Ibrahim (AS).

Prophet Ibrahim’s sacrifice is something that Muslims remember every Eid al-Adha during the holy month of Dhul Hijjah. In commemoration of this noblest and greatest spirit, the followers of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ) have been instructed to sacrifice an animal on the occasion of Eid al-Adha as a Sunnah of their spiritual father Ibrahim (AS).

Muslims from all over the world celebrate this great event offering an animal usually a goat, sheep, cow or camel for the sake of Allah (SWT) on Eid al-Adha.

4. Lessons from the Trials of Ibrahim (AS)

The trials faced by Prophet Ibrahim (AS) offer invaluable lessons that resonate in the minds of Muslims around the world. Prophet Ibrahim’s story is mentioned throughout the Quran and holds a prominent place in Islamic teachings. Judaism and Christianity also contain the story of Prophet Ibrahim (AS) but they appropriate it in different ways. In Islam, the trials of Prophet Ibrahim (AS) have established a magnificent example and crucial guidance demonstrating his unwavering faith and obedience to Allah (SWT).

Moreover, the trials of Ibrahim (AS) highlight the significance of trust in Allah’s wisdom. Through each of these trials, Ibrahim (AS) proved his steadfastness towards obeying the commands of Allah, even when faced with difficult situation and very tough challenges. His story teaches Muslims the importance of relying on Allah’s guidance and trusting that He will provide the best outcome, even in the most difficult of circumstances.

Furthermore, Ibrahim (AS)’s trials emphasize the crucial role of patience and obedience in the life of a believer. Despite the hardships and sacrifices demanded of him, Ibrahim (AS) displayed unparallel obedience to Allah’s commands. The example of his obedience serves as a guideline for Muslims to prioritize their devotion to Allah above everything else, even when faced with trials that test their faith and commitment.

5. Sacrifice is one of the symbols of Islam.

In Islam, the tradition of animal sacrifice is traced back to the most remarkable trial of Prophet Ibrahim (AS). The story of this trial of Prophet Ibrahim is the guiding example of sacrifice as a means of absolute trust and reliance on Allah in every aspect of life.

Every community adhering to a particular religion follows up its rituals with deep respect and dignity. The uniqueness of the rituals they follow is considered to be a symbol of that community. Sacrificing of animals in the occasion of Eid al-Adha is one of the symbols of Muslims. The act of sacrifice was prescribed in Islam so that a Muslim gets an opportunity to be closer to Allah (SWT) through responding to His command. Allah, the Almighty has encouraged to respect the Islamic symbols as stated in the Qur'an:

ذَلِكَ وَمَن يُعَظِّمْ شَعَائِرَ اللَّهِ فَإِنَّهَا مِن تَقْوَى الْقُلُوبِ

“And whoever holds in honor the symbols of Allah, (in the sacrifice of animals), such (honor) should come truly from piety of hearts.”- [Qur'an 22:32].

So, every Muslim should engage himself in the act of sacrifice with due solemnity and respect during the Eid al-Adha in order to uphold the symbols of Islam and become closer to the Lord, Allah (SWT).

For any sacrifice, what matters is the sincerity and sensing of the purpose deeply in offering the sacrifice. It is essential to have a feeling inside oneself that one should be ready to sacrifice one’s valuable assets in Allah’s way. Islam inspires us to develop this kind of mental state from the noble sacrifice of Ibrahim (AS). Hence, for Muslims Qurbani or sacrifice is a symbol of oath demonstrating highest mental submissiveness and trust towards Allah (SWT).

6. Qurbani is a great ‘Ibadah’

Qurbani or Sacrifice is synonymous with surrender. It symbolizes that the person performing Qurbani is willing to sacrifice everything dear to him for Allah. It symbolizes and strengthens the promise with Allah (SWT).

The person performing Qurbani would be willing to obey all the commandments of Allah (SWT) and will sacrifice his interests and belongings that come in the way of fulfilling Allah’s orders. Thus, Qurbani is a great‘Ibadah’ in Islam and is a source of reinvigorating the pact with Allah if done with proper understanding of its philosophy, history and purpose.

Through the sacrifice of animals in the Eid al-Adha, Muslims deeply remember the devotion of Prophet Ibrahim (AS) to Allah (SWT) with an additional obligation to the poor. On this occasion Muslims require to reflect on the devotion and perseverance of Ibrahim (AS) and then to approach for the sacrifice with sincere intention for the sake of Allah (SWT) only.

With this sacred act of sacrifice, Muslims need to realize the significant messages of the story of Ibrahim (AS) and beyond, including their duty to those who are struggling around the world.

Allah, the Almighty granted us uncounted blessings that are priceless like the blessings of faith and obedience, hearing and sight, money and children, etc. And we need to thank Allah (SWT) for all these blessings essential for our survival and flourishing. Our sacrifice of animals in the Eid al-Adha is also a form of thanking Allah, the Almighty.

Islam teaches us piety, compassion, generosity and unity through the act of Qurbani. Islam encourages feeding food as well as discourages stinginess. One can achieve this opportunity of feeding food through the act of sacrifice. The meat of Qurbani is a bounty and blessings of Allah. After the sacrifice Muslims distribute meat among the needy people, neighbors and relatives. They also invite the relatives and friends for food on this occasion. Thus, they do achieve a lot of social and spiritual benefits of the Sacrifice.

Allah will be pleased with this generous and virtuous deed and others in the society will be motivated by it. Allah will accept this deed as Ibadah and people will be rewarded for this act of generosity and this will facilitate their way to the paradise in the hereafter.

7. Criticisms of Qurbani

There are various criticisms and objections surrounding the animal sacrifice in Eid al-Adha raised by non-Muslims, Secularists and animal right activists. Some non-practicing Muslims with very poor religious understanding sometimes advocate in favor of the animal right activists. The most common points of these criticisms are mentioned and replied below.

i) A Bloody Ritual in the Name of God

Some non-Muslims consider the Qurbani as a bloody ritual where the Muslims engage themselves to appease God by shedding the blood of the innocent animals to gain their desires from Him. This outlook appears similar to that in the period of paganism when people were illiterate and thought that their sacrifice will make their God(s) happy which may result in some benefits and blessings.

In order to comprehend the Islamic stance on animal sacrifice, one must have to delve into the realm of Islamic views and ideals. Eid al-Adha is not at all focused on the act of slaughtering animals to appease God, but rather it is a demonstration of expressing love and devotion to God following the footsteps of our Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ).

The tradition was introduced by our prophet in commemoration of the great sacrifice of our spiritual father Ibrahim (AS) who proceeded to sacrifice his beloved son by the commandment of Allah.

So, sacrificing of animal in Eid al-Adha is a symbol of our devotion and reliance on Allah which literally imitates the great sacrifice of Prophet Ibrahim (AS). As regards to the objection of the animal rights activists it can be pointed out that the processed meat they buy from the frozen foods section of their local supermarket was once a frisky lamb or a fluffy chick that had its throat cut open by a butcher in the backyard or may be behind the tall walls.
Qur'an has allowed and also encouraged to consume meat. Qur'an says:

أَوَلَمْ يَرَوْا أَنَّا خَلَقْنَا لَهُمْ مِمَّا عَمِلَتْ أَيْدِينَا أَنْعَامًا فَهُمْ لَهَا مَالِكُونَ - وَذَلَّلْنَاهَا لَهُمْ فَمِنْهَا رَكُوبُهُمْ وَمِنْهَا يَأْكُلُونَ - وَلَهُمْ فِيهَا مَنَافِعُ وَمَشَارِبُ أَفَلَا يَشْكُرُونَ

“Do they not see that We singlehandedly created for them, among other things, cattle which are under their control? And we have subjected the cattle to them so that some of them they ride and eat the flesh of others. And for them therein are [other] benefits and drinks, so will they not be grateful?”- [Qur'an 36:71-73].

These verses manifest that cattle are created for humans to benefit from and utilize for warmth, food, and other necessities. The humans are allowed to enjoy the benefits of cattle to their fullest and are asked to express their gratitude and gratefulness to the Almighty Creator, Allah.

Allah, the lord of the universe has appointed humans vicegerents on the earth with control over His other creations. The power and authority bestowed upon humans over other creations necessitate that humans acknowledge the supremacy and sovereignty of Allah. When it comes to animal sacrifice, it is done solely in the name of Allah as a manifestation of this acknowledgement.

It will be a completely unfair objection from Secularists if they were to criticize on the consumption of meat as majority among themselves consume meat in the name of various food brands throughout the year.

Thus McDonald’s, KFC and Pizza Hut are the fastest growing Food Chains and majority of the stuff provided in these restaurants is meat either white or Red. Their objection is not ethical if they enjoy Steaks, Kababs and Naharis round the year and save their animal rights and environmental activism for this one day of the year. One way or another, most of these critics do consume meat themselves. However, what seems to be a matter of objection here is the kind of obligation that Muslims feel towards this practice.

It is important to note that sacrificing of an animal is not just for show or display of sentiment; along with its importance for spiritual elevation it serves a wider social purpose. A portion of the Qurbani meat is given to the poor, and another portion is distributed amongst friends and family promoting societal harmony. Thus, sacrifice at Eid al-Adha promotes compassion and love for God’s people.

 ii) Cruelty to Animals

The Islamic practice of slaughtering animals by means of a sharp cut to the front of the neck has frequently come under attack by some animal rights activists considering it as a form of animal cruelty. They claim that it is a painful and inhumane method of killing animals. They object that the Muslims do not adopt the use of Stun Injections before slaughtering the animal.

Muslims follow the way of slaughtering shown by the Prophet who was sent to teach them every ritual practice according to the will of Allah (SWT). Islamic method involves making a swift, deep incision with a sharp knife on the neck of the animal cutting the jugular veins and the carotid arteries as well as the trachea and esophagus.

It has been scientifically proved that Islamic method is gentle and less painful to the animals. It may come as a surprise to those critics to learn the results of a study carried out by Professor Wilhelm Schulze and his colleague Dr. Hazim at the School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover University in Germany.

The title of the study was “Attempts to Objectify Pain and Consciousness in Conventional (captive bolt pistol stunning) and Ritual (halal, knife) Methods of Slaughtering Sheep and Calves”. The study concludes that Islamic slaughtering is the most humane method of slaughtering and that captive bolt stunning, practiced in the West, causes severe pain to the animal.

From their experiment it was found that in the Islamic method the swift cutting of vessels of the neck disconnects the flow of blood to the nerves in the brain responsible for pain. Thus the animal does not feel pain. This method results in the rapid gush of blood draining most of it from the animal’s body. The movements and convulsion that happen to the animal after the cut are not due to pain, but due to the contraction and relaxation of the muscles deficient in blood.

In the Islamic method of slaughtering a maximum amount of blood drains out from the body thus resulting in hygienic meat for the consumer. On the other hand, the hearts of animals stunned by captive bolt pistol stop beating earlier resulting in the retention of more blood in the meat. This in turn is unhygienic for the consumer. It has been proved from this studies that Islamic method of slaughtering of animals is a blessing to both the animal and to humans alike.

The prophet (ﷺ) also taught Muslims neither to sharpen the blade of the knife in front of the animal nor to slaughter an animal in front of others of its own kind. This clearly indicates that Islam is not at all cruel to animals rather much more compassionate to animals.

iii) May Cause Extinction of Animal Species

Sometimes there are reports of extinction of some animal species due to changes in the ecosystem by natural or other causes. But those are mainly wild animal species dependent on natural conditions. But the sacrificial animals are cattle which are grown at homes or farms under the care of humans.

In the verse 36:71-73 of the Qur'an (cited before) Allah (SWT) has declared that He has created cattle for the consumption and other benefits of humans. He has thus established a natural cycle for consumption and reproduction of cattle. If its demand increases, by Allah’s grace farmers automatically get motivated to grow more cattle.

The more it is spent, the more Allah increases its production to maintain a balance. Furthermore, it is commonly observed that the number of cows and goats far exceeds that of cats and dogs, although cats and dogs are known to produce more offspring at a time. Moreover, cows and goats are slaughtered frequently, whereas cats and dogs are seldom killed. Nevertheless, it is undeniable that the number of cows and goats far exceeds that of cats and dogs in the world. The bounties of Allah (SWT) never exhaust for His righteous slaves.

At every Eid al-Adha, millions of cattle are sacrificed. But it never so happened that people could not sacrifice animals next year Eid al-Adha due to unavailability of sacrificial animals. For the next Eid al-Adha, millions of animals once again become ready for sacrificing. Blessings of Allah (SWT) are always with the devoted and righteous servants of Him. Based on the available evidence, it has become apparent that there will be no risk of extinction of any sacrificial animal species.

iv) Giving Charity as Alternative to Sacrifice

The act of sacrificing an animal in Eid al-Adha is a crucial aspect of Muslim worship. Both the Qur'an and the Hadith emphasize its significance and rewards. In recent times, a new craze has emerged around the world among the Muslims and non-Muslims alike, who are trying to re-interpret the animal sacrifice in Eid al-Adha as an expression of charity or donation in money terms. In their own understanding, this is an attempt to make Islam more compatible with what they perceive to be the demands of the ‘modern’ world. Unfortunately, this craze proceeds on a wrong understanding of Islam and the prescribed rituals in it.

In regards to sacrificing of animals, the Holy Qur’an states in the verse 22:37 (cited before) that neither their meat nor their blood reaches Allah; what reaches to Him is the piety behind the sacrifice. The Holy Qur’an categorically ascertains that the meat or blood of the animal does not bear any value to Allah (SWT); the state of mind of the person who performs the sacrifice is of importance to Him. The Qur’an neither negates the necessity of sacrifice nor suggests any alternative to animal sacrifice. Instead, the Qur’an emphasizes on gaining piety and closeness to Allah through animal sacrifice.

The virtue and rewards of celebrations of Eid al-Adha is connected to animal sacrifice and Allah (SWT) demands this kind of worship from His servants on this occasion. Any suggestion of an alternative to the sacrifice of animals is nothing but prompting Muslims to stop worshipping Allah the way He demands.

Secondly, and more importantly, Islam has an obligatory system of charity in money terms known as ‘Zakah’, which is one of the five fundamental tenets of Islam. Each year, every person who has money or assets that reaches a threshold level called‘Nisab’, has to give 2.5% of their value compulsorily in charity.

Zakah is just one form of charity in Islam and many more forms of voluntary charities known as ‘Sadaqah’ are there. Sadaqahs are not bound by any percentage and depend on the inclination of the giver. The compulsory and voluntary charities are both denominated in money terms and distributed as such. In Islam, 5 times daily prayers, fasting in Ramadan, sacrificing of animals in Eid al-Adha, giving Zakah, giving Sadaqah and all other deeds are independent Ibadah. None of these can replace another.

It is thus obvious that sacrificing an animal is an obligatory practice in Islam that cannot be substituted with donations or any other stuff. So those who feel that they have come up with a brilliant new idea not contemplated in Islam of giving money in charity instead of sacrificing animal do not have the fundamental understanding of Islam. It is abundantly clear that the precept of sacrificing an animal in the tradition of Prophet Ibrahim exists in Islam as an independent form of Ibadah and cannot be substituted by any of them.

8. Cleanliness and Qurbani Waste Disposal

Cleanliness is an integral part of our faith and holds immense importance in Islam. During and after celebration of the blessed event of Qurbani, it is important to maintain hygiene and cleanliness. It is crucial to extend this act of devotion to the proper cleaning and disposal of animal remains to maintain a clean and healthy environment.

As a first step towards the issue of health and hygiene the animals chosen should be healthy. They should not have any visible defects or illnesses. Health test of an animal is mandatory before its slaughter. The animals must be kept in rest for 8 to 10 hours before slaughtering. Animals should not be slaughtered in open space.

Slaughtering process must be applied in the slaughterhouses and / or at the places that the municipalities allot for slaughtering. The place should be cleaned as soon as the animal is taken there for sacrifice. The slaughterhouse should be kept dry and separate from public facilities.

Proper handling and processing method is crucial to ensure the quality and safety of the Qurbani meat. Sharp, long, and rust-free knives should be used in the processing. It is essential to ensure that the plastic mat, meat container, and cutting board are clean.

Areas for slaughtering and dressing should be washed throughout the process. Cleanliness is next to Godliness, and if we want our Qurbani to be meaningful, we must make sure it is done in the right way. This means not leaving a mess behind and creating problems for others. Individual and collective steps can be taken to ensure that our surroundings are left clean after sacrifice.

Thorough cleaning and disinfection of the areas must be done where the Qurbani animals are sacrificed. This includes using appropriate cleaning agents and ensuring proper drainage systems.

Proper disposal of waste is crucial to prevent our area from becoming a pit of rotting flesh with slaughterhouse stench. Coordination has to be maintained with local waste management authorities or Municipalities to ensure the proper collection and disposal of Qurbani animal wastes. This can help prevent the accumulation of waste in public spaces and ensure hygienic practices.

Effective communication and community education may play a vital role in promoting responsible practices. Awareness can be raised among the people about the importance of cleanliness and waste reduction during Qurbani through campaign, workshop and seminar and also through social media.

9. Conclusions

Qurbani is a medium of proving our belief, love, obedience and selflessness towards Allah. Along with its spiritual and humanitarian aspects, it reflects compassion, generosity and fosters unity within the community. It commemorates the sincerity, devotion and obedience of Prophet Ibrahim (AS) to the Almighty Allah as well as serves as a celebration of his great success in the divine trial.

Muslims should embrace the spirit of Qurbani and live their lives as the Prophet Ibrahim had lived with the concept that everything we have is the blessing of Allah so it should be used and spent in His desired path. In brief, the meaning and significance of sacrifice on Eid al-Adha encompass absolute obedience to Allah with solid trust and gratitude to Him; and embodiment of important moral values such as selflessness, generosity and social responsibility.

Along with carrying significant spiritual and communal importance the practice of animal sacrifice necessitates stringent health and hygiene measures. As Muslims, it is our duty to practice responsible waste management and maintain cleanliness during the Qurbani ritual.

  Category: Faith & Spirituality, Featured, Highlights
  Topics: Hajj, Quran

Related Suggestions

The opinions expressed herein, through this post or comments, contain positions and viewpoints that are not necessarily those of IslamiCity. These are offered as a means for IslamiCity to stimulate dialogue and discussion in our continuing mission of being an educational organization. The IslamiCity site may occasionally contain copyrighted material the use of which may not always have been specifically authorized by the copyright owner. IslamiCity is making such material available in its effort to advance understanding of humanitarian, education, democracy, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a 'fair use' of any such copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law.

In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107, and such (and all) material on this site is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for research and educational purposes.