The Arab who perfected culture

Category: Europe, Featured, Life & Society Topics: Music Views: 12030

If you eat asparagus, or if you start your meal with soup and end with dessert, or if you use toothpaste, or if you wear your hair in bangs, you owe a lot to one of the greatest musicians in history.

He was known as Ziryab, a colloquial Arabic term that translates as "blackbird." He lived in medieval Spain more than a thousand years ago. He was a freed slave who made good, charming the royal court at Cordoba with his songs. He founded a music school whose fame survived more than 500 years after his death. Ibn Hayyan of Cordoba, one of Arab Spain's greatest historians, says in his monumental Al-Muqtabas (The Citation) that Ziryab knew thousands of songs by heart and revolutionized the design of the musical instrument that became the lute. He spread a new musical style around the Mediterranean, influencing troubadours and minstrels and affecting the course of European music.

He was also his generation's arbiter of taste and style and manners, and he exerted enormous influence on medieval European society. How people dressed, what and how they ate, how they groomed themselves, what music they enjoyed-all were influenced by Ziryab.

If you've never heard of this remarkable artist, it's not surprising. With the twists and turns of history, his name has dropped from public memory in the western world. But the changes he brought to Europe are very much a part of the reality we know today.

One reason Ziryab is unknown to us is that he spoke Arabic, and was part of the royal court of the Arab empire in Spain. Muslims from Arabia and North Africa ruled part of Spain from AD 711 until 1492. The last remnant of Arab rule in the Iberian Peninsula, the Kingdom of Granada, was conquered by the armies of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella in the same year that Columbus sailed for the New World.

The Arabs called their Iberian domain Al-Andalus-a direct reference to the Vandals, who occupied the peninsula in the fifth century and whose legacy was still pervasive when Muslim forces arrived in the eighth-and that name survives today in the name of Spain's southern province, Andalusia. At its peak, Al-Andalus experienced a golden age of civilization that was the envy of all Europe, and which set the stage for the European Renaissance that followed. Muslims, Christians and Jews interacted in a convivencia-a "living-together"-of tolerance and cooperation unparalleled in its time. Influences from Arab Spain spread to France and throughout Europe, and from there to the Americas. It was in this context that the achievements of Ziryab became part of western culture.

Ziryab's achievements were not forgotten in the Arab world, and it is from historians there that we know of his life and accomplishments. As the 17th-century Arab historian al-Maqqari says in his Nafb al-Tib (Fragrant Breeze), "There never was, either before or after him, a man of his profession who was more generally beloved and admired."

Blackbird was actually named Abu al-Hasan 'Ali ibn Nafi', and he was born in about the year 789 in the land now called Iraq, perhaps in its capital, Baghdad. Some Arab historians say he was a freed slave-apparently a page or personal servant-whose family had served al-Mahdi, the caliph or ruler of the Baghdad-based Abbasid empire from 775 until his death in 785. In those days, many prominent musicians were slaves or freedmen, some of African origin, others from Europe or the Middle East (including Kurdistan and Persia). Historians differ over whether Ziryab was African, Persian or Kurdish. According to Ibn Hayyan, 'Ali Ibn Nafi' was called Blackbird because of his extremely dark complexion, the clarity of his voice and "the sweetness of his character."

Blackbird studied music under the famous singer and royal court musician Ishaq al-Mawsili ("Isaac of Mosul"). Ishaq, his even more celebrated father, Ibrahim, and Ziryab are the three artists known as the fathers of Arabic music.

Baghdad was then a world center for culture, art and science. Its most famous ruler was Harun al-Rashid, who succeeded al-Mahdi. Harun was a lover of music, and brought many singers and musicians to the palace for the entertainment of his guests. Ishaq, as Harun's chief musician, trained a number of students in the musical arts, among them Blackbird. Ziryab was intelligent and had a good ear; outside his lessons, he surreptitiously learned the songs of his master, which were said to have been complex and difficult even for an expert. Ishaq did not realize how much Ziryab had learned until Harun himself asked to hear the young musician.

In Ibn Hayyan's account (as related by al-Maqqari), Ishaq told the caliph, "Yes, I've heard some nice things from Ziryab, some clear and emotional melodies-particularly some of my own rather unusual renditions. I taught him those songs because I considered them especially suited to his skill."

Ziryab was summoned, and he sang for Harun al-Rashid. Afterward, when the caliph spoke to him, Ziryab answered "gracefully, with real charm of manner." Harun asked him about his skill, and Blackbird replied, "I can sing what the other singers know, but most of my repertory is made up of songs suitable only to be performed before a caliph like Your Majesty. The other singers don't know those numbers. If Your Majesty permits, I'll sing for you what human ears have never heard before."

Harun raised his eyebrows, and ordered that master Ishaq's lute be handed to Ziryab. The Arabian lute or 'ud, model of the European lute and relative of the guitar, was an instrument with four courses of strings, a body shaped like half a pear and a bent, fretless neck.

Ziryab respectfully declined the instrument. "I've brought my own lute," he said, "which I made myself-stripping the wood and working it-and no other instrument satisfies me. I left it at the palace gate and, with your permission, I'll send for it."

Harun sent for the lute. He examined it. It looked like Ishaq al-Mawsuli's.

"Why won't you play your master's lute?" the caliph asked.

"If the caliph wants me to sing in my master's style, I'll use his lute. But to sing in my own style, I need this instrument."

"They look alike to me," Harun said.

"At first glance, yes," said Ziryab, "but even though the wood and the size are the same, the weight is not. My lute weighs about a third less than Ishaq's, and my strings are made of silk that has not been spun with hot water-which weakens them. The bass and third strings are made of lion gut, which is softer and more sonorous than that of any other animal. These strings are stronger than any others, and they can better withstand the striking of the pick." Ziryab's pick was a sharpened eagle's claw, rather than the usual piece of carved wood. He had also, significantly, added a fifth course of strings to the instrument.

Harun was satisfied. He ordered Ziryab to perform, and the young man began a song he had composed himself. The caliph was quite impressed. He turned to al-Mawsuli and said, "If I thought you had been hiding this man's extraordinary ability, I'd punish you for not telling me about him. Continue his instruction until it's completed. For my part, I want to contribute to his development."

Ziryab had apparently concealed his finest talents from his own teacher. When Ishaq was finally alone with his pupil, he raged about being deceived. He said frankly that he was jealous of Ziryab's skill, and feared the pupil would soon replace the master in the caliph's favor.

"I could pardon this in no man, not even my own son," Ishaq said. "If I weren't still somewhat fond of you, I wouldn't hesitate to kill you, regardless of the consequences. Here is your choice: Leave Baghdad, take up residence far from here, and swear that I'll never hear from you again. If you do this, I'll give you enough money to meet your needs. But if you choose to stay and spite me-I warn you, I'll risk my life and all I possess to crush you. Make your choice!"

Ziryab did not hesitate; he took the money and left the Abbasid capital. Ishaq explained his protg's absence by claiming that Ziryab was mentally unbalanced and had left Baghdad in a rage at not receiving a gift from the caliph. "The young man is possessed," Ishaq told Harun al-Rashid. "He's subject to fits of frenzy that are horrible to witness. He believes the jinn speak with him and inspire his music. He's so vain he believes his talent is unequaled in the world. I don't know where he is now. Be thankful, Your Majesty, that he's gone."

There was a germ of truth in Ishaq's tale: According to Ibn Hayyan and others, Ziryab did believe that in his dreams he heard the songs of the jinn, the spirit beings of Islamic and Arab lore. He would wake from a dream in the middle of the night and summon his own students, teaching them the melodies he had heard in his dreams.

As Reinhart Dozy notes in Histoire des Musulmans d'Espagne, "None knew better than Ishaq that there was no insanity in all this: What true artist, indeed, whether believing in jinn or not, has not known moments when he has been under the sway of emotions hard to define, and savoring of the supernatural?"

Ziryab and his family fled from Baghdad to Egypt and crossed North Africa to Kairouan in present-day Tunisia, seat of the Aghlabid dynasty of Ziyadat Allah I. There he was welcomed by the royal court. But he had no intention of staying in Kairouan; his eyes were on Spain. Under the Umayyads, Cordoba was fast becoming a cultural jewel to rival Baghdad, and Blackbird thought Cordoba might be a fit setting for his talents.

Ziryab wrote to al-Hakam, ruler of the emirate of Al-Andalus, and offered his musical skills. Al-Hakam, delighted with the prospect of adding a Baghdad musician to his court, wrote back inviting Ziryab to proceed to Cordoba. He offered the musician a handsome salary. Ziryab and his family packed their bags and headed overland to the Strait of Gibraltar. There they embarked on a ship bound for Algeciras, Spain.

When Ziryab arrived in Spain in the year 822, he was shocked to learn that al-Hakam was dead. Devastated, the young musician prepared to return to North Africa. But thanks to the glowing recommendation of Abu al-Nasr Mansur, a Jewish musician of the Cordoban royal court, al-Hakam's son and successor 'Abd al-Rahman II renewed the invitation to Ziryab.

After meeting with the 33-year-old wonder from Baghdad, 'Abd al-Rahman-who was about the same age-made him an attractive offer. Ziryab would receive a handsome salary of 200 gold pieces per month, with bonuses of 500 gold pieces at midsummer and the new year and 1000 on each of the two major Islamic holidays. He would be given 200 bushels of barley and 100 bushels of wheat each year. He would receive a modest palace in Cordoba and several villas with productive farmland in the countryside. Naturally, Ziryab accepted the offer; overnight he became a prosperous member of the landed upper class in Islamic Spain.

Abd al-Rahman's objective in hiring the young musician was to bring culture and refinement to the rough-and-ready country of Al-Andalus, the wild west of the Arab world and not too long ago a "barbarian" Gothic land far from the civilized centers of Damascus and Baghdad. The ruler's own Umayyad family had come as exiles from Damascus, where they had ruled an Islamic empire for several hundred years. Now the power rested with the Abbasids in Baghdad, and that city had become a magnet for scientists, artists and scholars of all descriptions.

In fact, 'Abd al-Rahman offered Ziryab employment before even asking him to perform. And when he eventually did hear Ziryab's songs, contemporaries say the ruler was so captivated that he would never again listen to another singer. From that day forward, 'Abd al-Rahman and Ziryab were close confidants, and would often meet to discuss poetry, history and all the arts and sciences.

Ziryab served as a kind of "minister of culture" for the Andalusi realm. One of his first projects was to found a school of music, which opened its doors not only to the talented sons and daughters of the higher classes but also to lower-class court entertainers. Unlike the more rigid conservatories of Baghdad, Ziryab's school encouraged experimentation in musical styles and instruments. While the academy taught the world-famous styles and songs of the Baghdad court, Ziryab quickly began introducing his innovations and established his reputation as, in the words of the Encyclopaedia of Islam, "the founder of the musical traditions of Muslim Spain."

He created the rules governing the performance of the nuba (or nauba), an important Andalusian Arab music form that survives today in the classical music of North Africa, known as maluf in Libya, Tunisia and eastern Algeria, and simply as andalusi music farther west. Ziryab created 24 nubas, one for each hour of the day, like the classical ragas of India. The nuba form became very popular in the Spanish Christian community and had a pronounced influence on the development of medieval European music.

Adding a fifth pair of strings to the lute gave the instrument greater delicacy of expression and a greater range. As music historian Julian Ribera wrote in the 1920's, the medieval lute's four courses of strings were widely believed to correspond to the four humors of the body. The first pair was yellow, symbolizing bile, the second was red for blood, the third white for phlegm, and the fourth, the bass pair, was black for melancholy. Ziryab, it was said, gave the lute a soul, adding another red pair of strings between the second and third courses.

Ziryab heightened the lute's sensitivity by playing the instrument with a flexible eagle's talon or quill, rather than the traditional wooden pick. This innovation spread quickly, and soon no skilled musician in Cordoba would consider touching wood to the strings of his lute.

Ziryab reputedly knew the words and melodies of 10,000 songs by heart. Though this claim may be exaggerated, his memory was certainly prodigious. He was also an excellent poet, a student of astronomy and geography, and a dazzling conversationalist, according to Ibn Hayyan and al-Maqqari. He often discussed the customs and manners of nations throughout the known world, and spoke extensively of the high civilization centered in Baghdad. As his popularity in Al-Andalus grew, so did his influence. His suggestions and recommendations became the popular fashion. Many of his new ideas gradually migrated into the land of the Franks-to France, Germany, northern Italy and beyond.

Ziryab loved well-prepared food almost as much as he did music. He revolutionized the arts of the table in Spain, in ways that survive to this day.

Before Ziryab, Spanish dining was a simple, even crude, affair, inherited from the Visigoths, the successors of the Vandals, and from local custom. Platters of different foods were piled together, all at the same time, on bare wooden tables. Table manners were nonexistent.

A wide array of foods was available in Al-Andalus-meats, fish and fowl, vegetables, cheeses, soups and sweets. Ziryab combined them in imaginative recipes, many originating in Baghdad. One of these dishes, consisting of meatballs and small triangular pieces of dough fried in coriander oil, came to be known as taqliyat Ziryab, or Ziryab's fried dish; many others bore his name as well. He delighted court diners by elevating a humble spring weed called asparagus to the status of a dinner vegetable. Ziryab developed a number of delectable desserts, including an unforgettable treat of walnuts and honey that is served to this day in the city of Zaragoza. In his adopted home, Cordoba, the musician-gourmet is remembered today in an old dish of roasted and salted broad beans called ziriab.

The staying power of Blackbird's reputation is such that even today in Algeria, where Andalusi influence continues to echo, the sweet orange Arab pastry known as zalabia-here it takes the form of a spiral of fried batter soaked in saffron syrup-is believed by many Algerians to derive its name from Ziryab's, a claim impossible to confirm or refute. An Indian version of zalabia, the jalebi, can be traced back to the 15th century within India but no earlier, and could be a borrowing from the Arabs and ultimately from Ziryab.

With the emir's blessing, Ziryab decreed that palace dinners would be served in courses-that is, according to a fixed sequence, starting with soups or broths, continuing with fish, fowl or meats, and concluding with fruits, sweet desserts and bowls of pistachios and other nuts. This presentation style, unheard of even in Baghdad or Damascus, steadily gained in popularity, spreading through the upper and merchant classes, then among Christians and Jews, and even to the peasantry. Eventually the custom became the rule throughout Europe. The English expression "from soup to nuts," indicating a lavish, multi-course meal, can be traced back to Ziryab's innovations at the Andalusi table.

Dressing up the plain wooden dinner table, Ziryab taught local craftsmen how to produce tooled and fitted leather table coverings. He replaced the heavy gold and silver drinking goblets of the upper classes-a holdover from the Goths and Romans-with delicate, finely crafted crystal. He redesigned the bulky wooden soupspoon, substituting a trimmer, lighter-weight model.

Ziryab also turned his attention to personal grooming and fashion. He developed Europe's first toothpaste (though what exactly its ingredients were, we cannot say). He popularized shaving among men and set new haircut trends. Before Ziryab, royalty and nobles washed their clothes with rose water; to improve the cleaning process, he introduced the use of salt.

For women, Blackbird opened a "beauty parlor/cosmetology school" not far from the Alcazar, the emir's palace. He created hairstyles that were daring for the time. The women of Spain traditionally wore their hair parted in the middle, covering their ears, with a long braid down the back. Ziryab introduced a shorter, shaped cut, with bangs on the forehead and the ears uncovered. He taught the shaping of eyebrows and the use of depilatories for removing body hair. He introduced new perfumes and cosmetics. Some of Ziryab's fashion tips he borrowed from the elite social circles of Baghdad, then the world's most cosmopolitan city. Others were twists on local Andalusi custom. Most became widespread simply because Ziryab advocated them: He was a celebrity, and people gained status simply by emulating him.

As an arbiter of courtly dress, he decreed Spain's first seasonal fashion calendar. In springtime, men and women were to wear bright colors in their cotton and linen tunics, shirts, blouses and gowns. Ziryab introduced colorful silk clothing to supplement traditional fabrics. In summer, white clothing was the rule. When the weather turned cold, Ziryab recommended long cloaks trimmed with fur, which became all the rage in Al-Andalus.

Ziryab exercised great clout at the emir's court, even in political and administrative decision-making. 'Abd al-Rahman II has been credited with organizing the "norms of the state" in Al-Andalus, transforming it from a Roman-Visigothic model to one set up along Abbasid lines, and Ziryab is said to have played a significant role in this process.

Ziryab brought in astrologers from India and Jewish doctors from North Africa and Iraq. The astrologers were grounded in astronomy, and Ziryab encouraged the spread of this knowledge. The Indians also knew how to play chess, and Ziryab had them teach the game to members of the royal court, and from there it spread throughout the peninsula.

Not surprisingly, Ziryab's all-encompassing influence incurred the jealousy and resentment of other courtiers in Cordoba. Two celebrated poets of the day, Ibn Habib and al-Ghazzal, wrote scathing verses attacking him. Al-Ghazzal, a prominent Andalusi satirist, probably viewed the Baghdadi Ziryab as a high-toned interloper. Ziryab maintained the friendship and support of the emir, however, and that was all that mattered.

But 'Abd al-Rahman II died in about 852, and his remarkable innovator Ziryab is believed to have followed about five years later. Ziryab's children kept alive his musical inventions, assuring their spread throughout Europe. Each of his eight sons and two daughters eventually pursued a musical career, though not all became celebrities. The most popular singer was Ziryab's son 'Ubayd Allah, though his brother Qasim was said to have a better voice. Next in talent was 'Abd al-Rahman, the first of the children to take over the music school after their father's death-though arrogance was said to be his downfall, for he ended up alienating everyone, according to Ibn Hayyan.

Ziryab's daughters were skilled musicians. The better artist was Hamduna, whose fame translated into marriage with the vizier of the realm. The better teacher was her sister 'Ulaiya, the last surviving of Ziryab's children, who went on to inherit most of her father's musical clients.

As 'Abd al-Rahman II and Ziryab departed the stage, Cordoba was coming into its own as a cultural capital and seat of learning. By the time another 'Abd al-Rahman-the third-took power in 912, the city had become the intellectual center of Europe. As historian James Cleugh said of Cordoba in Spain in the Modern World, "there was nothing like it, at that epoch, in the rest of Europe. The best minds in that continent looked to Spain for everything which most clearly differentiates a human being from a tiger."

As the first millennium drew to a close, students from France, England and the rest of Europe flocked to Cordoba to study science, medicine and philosophy and to take advantage of the great municipal library with its 600,000 volumes. When they returned to their home countries, they took with them not only knowledge, but also art, music, cuisine, fashion and manners.

Europe found itself awash with new ideas and new customs, and among the many streams that flowed northward from the Iberian Peninsula, more than one had been channeled by Ziryab.

 

Robert W. Lebling, Jr. is head of electronic publishing for Saudi Aramco in Dhahran. His academic background includes studies in the history, politics and anthropology of Arab North Africa and Al-Andalus. He is collaborating on a book on natural remedies of Arabia.


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  13 Comments   Comment

  1. Vusala from USA

    Reading articles of these scales makes me nothing but proud of my Islamic and Easter heritage. Thanks

  2. Doin Phine

    My first response was the same as Dr Syed Alwi, get out of the past and do something now. But after reflection I think that this article could be educational in the sense a lesson can be learned. If the West could learn from the Middle East (And all the other cultures thru time) why shouldn't the Muslim world do it now to reignite a new period of growth, enlightenment and scientific achievements which hasn't been the case for many a century!

  3. Ibnou Ziyad from France

    Wonder Why Andalus was lost? (May be this article is giving us a hint)

  4. Dr Edriss from US

    If that was an option of ranking the topics in Islam.org, this topic should be ranked the worst ever seen. since I'm descendent of Andalus and aware of the history of my ancestors very well... this guy who wrote this .. should find him something else to do other than inspiring his love of music from the time when the Islamic state of Andalus begin to decline. I'm not against music here but I'm against the culture produced by music. when music produce a culture it becomes unIslamic. later you end up with one crazy king who loved a Northern frenchish woman(that's what they were called in the time and not spanish) and give up the whole Andalus for her in the sake of the culture of music.

    Mr whoever who write whatever, that was no golden pieces as money in time of Zyriab. Plus something that most people missunderstand about Andalus, it was an Islamic state and not an arab state. without Islam, the arabs can never land in Andalus and it's a berber muslim who open this new land for Islam. his name "Tariq Ibn Zyad".

    the kiffer use the culture of music to invade others especialy the muslim world. unlike the muslim who get lock up in the culture of music and walk backward in what Allah gave him.

  5. Dr Syed Alwi from Singapore

    Has the Muslim world become so poor in achievements that we have to always look to the PAST in order to find examples ? What did the Muslim world contribute to humanity over the past 500 years ? NOTHING ! All our contributions were made more than 500 years ago. Stop living in the past. Start planning for tomorrow or is that too difficult for some Muslims ?

    Regards

    Dr Syed Alwi

  6. Mehseti from Azerbaijan

    Salam Alikum

    Its good to post such articles, at least Europe & America will realize that culture has come to the West with islam & with muslims ..poems, music, ethic conducts, etc, etc..

    Who can say there was muslim marriage without music in any muslim country?..where?

    As Salam Alikum

  7. Abdullah from USA

    Hello to all

    this Article is really something noteworthy. Its an which the non muslims need to read. In response to Tariqs earlier comment about how musicians have a negative connotation in islam is obsurd. Can you tell me that no muslim today does not listen to any sort of music? ALthough yes music is somtimes distracting, it s no where near forbidden in islam at all. So to the author of this websited and to ISlamicity, Great Job with the knowledge prevalent in this article.We need more unique information about arabs and Especailly muslims here in America, and refering to the extremist principle that music is aweful in islam is obsurD!

  8. Tariq from India

    Asalamualikum

    I have been visiting the Islami City website for a couple of months now. I wonder why was there a need for writing something about a musician given Islams views on music? It would have been great if there was a write about an Islamic warrior of that time. There have so many and especially in Andulus? I hope the website stops praising musicians and all other such people.

  9. Asmar from USA

    Thanks for a great article.

    Unfortunately, Zeryab's head would have been cut under barbaric Taliban.

    I can see some of the ignorant muslims blaming Zeryab for Andalus demise.

  10. Maoul-Ain (Maline Hydara) from United Kingdom

    Bissimillah Arahman Arahimi

    Assalatou Wa Salamou Al Rassoulil Kerim, Mohammed, Mustapha, Muntaka, Moutchtaba; wa ala Alihi, Wa As-ha'abi atchma-i'ina.

    Sala'amou Aleikum

    Brothers and Sisters.

    Indeed you can only be rewarded by Subha'nahou wa Ta'ala, for this splendid "Jihad" on the path of Allah you have been engaged in during this past Ten years. Unfortunatly, being unable to give a donation at this present moment, I whole-heartedly congratulate the whole staff members and every known and unknown brothers and sisters who have been some steadfast supporters in this noble cause of yours. May Allah Subha'anahu Wata'ala, the Most Desirable desires you all and everyone of us.

    As for the beautiful story about Ziryad the "blackbird", one can again only give thanks to Allah, the Most High, for allowing us to be part of this magnificiant creation of His of most excellance. The refenrence to his coulour of course is something of a great importance, since between the three main religions, only within Islam, that black people have occupied a place of priviledge as far as I am aware. This demonstrate once again the universal acclaim of Islam, without a racial boundaries. To denail the greatness of the Arabic people and with their culture is to denial a fundamental truth about what Allah says about that language and one of the reason it has been chosen as the vehicle of Al-Qur'an Karim. Arabes were great people then as they still are today. Unfortunately, if only their leaders can see, the vast and infinite amount of ressources available to them by simply promoting Islam. These Natural Ressources will come to an end one day, by the will of Allah, but never till the end time, the UMMA will always grow and grow; that is an infinite amount Human Ressources. Sometime I happen to ask myself, what am I doing here, in the West? Why are all this Somalis, Irakis, Pakistanis, Bangladeshis, Morrocans, Africans...Brothers and Sisters doing here? What a waste!!!.

    Wassalam

    Mao

  11. Abu Abdullah from Palestine

    Very disappointing. At first glance the story of Ziryab sounds very good, but Ziryab is actually attributed in the history of Islam as the man who caused the collapse of the Muslim Ummawi Khilafah in Andalus, or was the main reason for it. He brought music and songs and colors and fashions and styles to a nation of scholars, mujahedeen, and worshippers and who dressed in plain clothing and lived a modest Muslim life in a very strong and powerful Muslim country.

    However, with the things Ziryab brought people turned away from learning and reading the Quran and the teachings of Islam to the beauty of the music and songs and wasting their time in trying to out-style and out-fashion one another.. So their society became one very much like ours now, were the music and movie stars are worshiped and the learned Muslim scholars are not respected or regarded with the proper respect. The kids know a million songs and cannot read three verses of the Quran.

    It is unfortunate that Al-Hakam Ibn Abdulrahman Al-Naser did not see the threat in Ziryab. He welcomed him and that was the beginning of the end for the Ummawi Khilafah in Andalus. the 2nd mistake was when Al-Hakam died and put his 12 year old son Hisham in charge with a council of 3 supervising. Muhammad Ibn Abu Amer, Al-Hajib Almansour, eliminated the 2 others and ran the country.

    In the span of these 50 years from the time Ziryab entered Al-Andalus and the death of Al-Hajib, the people in Al-Andalus had turned from Akhera (afterlife) loving people who worked for it in their daily lives, and became very much like us nowadays, running after the latest fashions and styles and songs and music while abandoning 'Ibadah and salah and namaz and the society was just ready to fall, so it fell at the first challenge. This wasn't the end of Muslims in Al-Andalus, but the end of the greatest period for Islam in Al Andalus.

    Finally, we really didn't need Ziryab, Rasoul Allah taught us everything we needed to know

  12. Amula from Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

    Amaazing history that we do not often hear about. Once again an article that has succeeded in giving me an opportunity to learn something I probably would not have learned anywhere else. Thanks!

  13. Axel from Australia

    Rather interesting.

    Unfortunately Iraq has lost to much of its true values.

    The more US you are going to accept the more you

    will loose in culture, pride and religion.

    The more you are going to reject of it the more of

    Ziryab is going to come back to you.

    If you like to be like the rest in the

    West, carry on, feed your kids Mac Donald and drink Coca Cola. Israel also will love you for it.

    Regards and Salaam, Axel