IN CONGRESS, July 4, 1776.
By the REPRESENTATIVES of the
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
In GENERAL CONGRESS assembled
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.
JOHN HANCOCK, President
CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary.
|Adams, Samuel||MA||Political leader|
|Bartlett, Josiah||NH||Physician, Judge|
|Carroll, Charles of Carrollton||MD||Lawyer|
|Franklin, Benjamin||PA||Printer, Publisher|
|Heyward, Thomas Jr.||SC||Lawyer, Farmer|
|Hopkins, Stephen||RI||Judge, Educator|
|Hopkinson, Francis||NJ||Judge, Author|
|Lee, Francis Lightfoot||VA||Farmer|
|Lee, Richard Henry||VA||Farmer|
|Lynch, Thomas Jr.||SC||Farmer|
|Nelson, Thomas Jr||VA||Farmer|
|Paine, Robert Treat||MA||Judge|
|Whipple, William||NH||Merchant, Judge|
The histories of those who signed it are irrelevant...
and always will be...
all men who ever lived were hypocrites...
but it doesn't mean their intelectual contributions should be ignored...
it is a shame how African Americans were treated by most whites in the past.
Most immigrants living the USA MUST thank Lincoln, Malcolm X, and Martin Luther King for their "racist" free" and happy life. Although racism and inequalities are still taking away happiness from many people living the USA, the present situation is much better than what the African Americans endured in the past.
We should thank the majority of European Americans (WHITES) for changing their racist attitudes and really applying the U.S. constituion/declaration of indepence in real-life situations.
Racism, regardless of its level of severity, exists in every nation on Earth. It(racism) just exists in other forms and may not in the form of Skin-color superiority, i.e.- Caste systems in India; Women being completely separated from men in school in Saudi Arabia; Arab Militia's (Muslims) involvment in ethnic cleansing Black Muslims in Sudan; the feeling of WEST being superior than the EAST; the "axis of evil" CRAP, etc..etc...
brother adam,i have done much research and that is the reason i denounce democracy and capitalism. i have learn that man can not make laws to govern other men,without there being biases and prejudices. That only man's creator can to this,the reason for quran to mankind
this november will not change anything,no matter who wins.(republican or democrat) both parties still rule with the same documement,just different approaches. ex. when clinton was president he still attack muslim countries(sudan and afghanistan) for no reason. remember the so call chemical plant in sudan that turn out to be a medicine plant. so removing Bush in november will not change nothing for anyone,muslim or not.
because both parties believe that democracy and capitalism have the right to rule mankind,their approaches to doing this differs, but the goal remains the same.
Brother Akbar, you are mistaken to say the treaty of hudaybiyah was a treaty of peace. This was a great political manuvere. the treaty was made to isolate qurayish from the rest of the pennisula. Within that ten years the prophet fought in the battle of khaybar against the jews that lived in khaybar. There was also the battle of mu'tah against the romans. during this the prophet sent many delegates to the neighboring countries,calling them to islam. He did not call them to keep living under their codes of life or laws but to accept islam.the treaty of hudaybiyah was great move on the part of the prophet to isolate mecca so when they finally broke the treaty they had no more allies on their side to come to their aid.
To bring back the constitution to the american people will not free them but to enslave them to being slaves to other men and not slaves to their creator. the true freedom comes in islam.
freedom in all of life.where man truly understands his reason for being created,to worship Allah alone and to understand his true purpose in life. that is to standup for the haq
It is time that Americans like you do some research and see how some few babarians have taken the majority of Americans for a ride. Thereafter you can send them(the neo-cons) parking to their base in November, so that they await the fate that is due for them like the forsaken REAGAN.
Al-Qur'an Al-Majeed commands all Muslims:
2:143 Thus, have We made of you an Ummat justly balanced, that ye might be witnesses over the nations, and the Messenger a witness over yourselves; and We appointed the Qibla to which thou wast used, only to test those who followed the Messenger from those who would turn on their heels (From the Faith). Indeed it was (A change) momentous, except to those guided by Allah. And never would Allah Make your faith of no effect. For Allah is to all people Most surely full of kindness, Most Merciful.
3:64 Say: "O People of the Book! come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah." If then they turn back, say ye: "Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah's Will).
So Muslims out there, was it not the actions of Ar-Rasool-Allah (saaw), to make a treaty of peace between the Pagan Makkans which gave Muslims of Medina 10 years of peace? Is it not the actions of our beloved Prophet Muhammad (saaw), who we are supposed to follow? It is but our obligation to respect the U.S. constitution, as when you read it, any Muslim can see that it is not denying us Muslims our right ot practice our faith freely! Come to common terms between you and them.
We, Muslims, are called Ummatan Wasatan (An Ummah justly balanced), in the Glorious Qur'an Al-Majeed. It is our responsibility to be the connecting force between all nations and all of humanity to bring one another together.
Therefore, bring the U.S. Constitution back into the mould of American life, and let it be instituted correctly. Or else we will be controlled by Patriot Acts and such rules...and listen, it can get far worse if we don't act now. So let us truly be Ummatun Wasatan.
first,what was the reason for diplaying this document. this has no meaning in islam. it is a document base on the human mind. so,it is full of errors,bias,opinion and misguidance. unlike the quran,which is from the creator of the universe and holds the only truth that can truly liberate mankind. you forget to say that this document was written for the so purpose of protecting the rich,white,anglo-saxon,protestant,male. it was not written for you or anyone that does not fit the wasp group.
All what the good Americans of those days fought against, from the British are what what is being meeted to the Iraqis, at gun point, to take. What an irony! I now believe commpeletely that illitracy rate in America should be one of the highest in the world!
Let your Words Match Your Deeds.