A Colonizing Project Built On Lies

It is not an easy life when it must be lived, defended, justified everyday, every hour - before the world and before the bar of one's own conscience - with lies, cover-ups, deceptions and sophistry.

But this has been the particular burden of Zionists as they conceived their plan for a colonial-settler state in Palestine, as they went about executing this plan on the backs of imperialists powers - with wars, massacres and ethnic cleansing - and, later, as they have persisted in their plans to dispossess the Palestinians of the last fragments of their rights and legacy whose Canaanite roots were more ancient than Isaiah, Ezekiel, David and Moses.

In the epoch of colonialism, when Europeans were the master race, and by that unquestioned right colonized, enslaved, exploited and 'improved' all the lesser breeds of Asia and Africa, the Zionists had an easy time with their narrative of lies. The Zionist goal was to possess Palestine, where they could establish an exclusive state for European Jewry. In order to possess Palestine, they would have to dispossess the Palestinians.

At the time, this was not a hard sell. It is true that the Jews did not have membership in Europe's master race, or if they did - through centuries of assimilation - this was not conceded by the Europeans. Still, they were a biblical people: it was from their chosen seed that Jesus had sprung. In Europe's hierarchy of races and peoples, this placed the Jews well above the Arab inhabitants of Palestine. The Jews were Israelites, children of Jacob, 'born of the spirit,' while the Arabs were Ishmaelites, children of Hagar, an Egyptian slave. In the words of John, the Hagarites were inferior: they were 'born of the flesh.'

This is what determined the Zionist sales pitch. They were a biblical people, an ancient people - the original and only inhabitants of Palestine - who had preserved their traditions and, more importantly, their racial purity through more than two thousand years of sojourn in Europe. But they are a people without a land: their sojourn in Europe was an exile from the land promised to them by the God of Jews and Christians. Their exile must now be ended by helping them to return to Palestine, a land once flowing with milk and honey, but which had declined since their departure into a wilderness - a desert now inhabited by wild Bedouin tribes, nondescript aborigines of no account.

All this was cleverly captured in the deceptive slogan, first coined by Israel Zangwill in 1897: "land without a people for a people without a land." This became the leading edge of Zionist propaganda. Unlike other colonialists, who justified their conquests with their intentions to improve the native population, the Zionist settlers would improve the land, since there were no people in Palestine to be improved. After the fact, Israel would justify itself with the claim that it had made the deserts bloom. And those blooms were planted where once Palestinian homes and villages had been.

When it was pointed out that Palestine was not empty, that it had close to a million inhabitants, the Zionists pressed two claims, one mythical and another secular, making sure they left no loose ends. Palestine had been promised to them by none other than their god. Since this god, later, also turned out to be the God of the Christians, this argument was guaranteed a favorable reception among those who still retained a strong belief in biblical stories. This had another advantage to the faithful. In the words of Henry Cabot Lodge, a senator from Massachusetts during the 1920s, Turkish control over the holy lands was "one of the great blots on the face of civilization, which ought to be erased."

A modified version of this narrative was offered to the secular-minded. The Jews had a historical right to Palestine: the adjective 'historical' carries nearly the same weight for the secular that 'divine' does for the faithful. The logic was quaint. No one would ever dream of pressing this claim in a court of law: that those who had once shared title to a piece of land - and that too more than two thousand years ago - have stronger claims over those who hold it now and continuously for thousands of years. But logic did not matter. In this case, those pressing the claims had an affinity with the Europeans, and the opposite party was a barbarous, savage race. Also, no one asked if those who wanted to 'return' were in fact the descendants of those who had left.

When these weighty arguments were added to their financial and political clout - and who can deny them credit for this clout - the Zionists won the simultaneous support of two imperialist powers. In 1917 Britain pledged to create a national home for the Jews in Palestine, a pledge that also had the  blessings of United States. After this, the Palestinians did not have a chance. The Zionist project could only have failed if it did not find takers among the Jews. It appeared at first that the Palestinians were in luck. Most Jewish emigrants from Europe preferred greener pastures in the Americas over the first Zionist settlements in Palestine.

Quaintly, it  was Hitler who changed all that. Once the Nazis came to power, and they began their sweep across Europe, Jewish immigration into Palestine, which had been a trickle during the 1920s, turned into a flood during the 1930s. When the Palestinians resisted the colonization of their country, they were brutally suppressed, and soon large tracts of Palestine passed into the effective control of Jewish immigrants. In 1948, the United Nations - where American pressure was used to garner the votes - stepped in with a partition plan. It gave 55 percent of historic Palestine to Israel, including most of the coastline and best agricultural lands, though Jews made up only 31 percent of the population and owned less than 7 percent of the land.

This led to war - or what goes under that name. The Palestinian strength had already been crushed by the British during 1935-39, while the Arab armies that opposed the creation of Israel were poorly trained, poorly led, outnumbered - yes, they were outnumbered - and without a  joint command. As a result, Israel came out of the war victorious, controlling 78 percent of historic Palestine, and having forced out 800,000 Palestinians from the areas they controlled. In the first Israeli-Arab war, the Zionists had nearly achieved their goal. The remainder of Palestine, consisting of the West Bank and Gaza - that had passed into the control of Jordan and Egypt - would be conquered in 1967.

Once Israel had become a fact, it had to be exonerated: it had to be distanced from the colonialist methods that had gone into its creation. The truth about its founding was cunningly inverted. A colonial settler-state that was established on the backs of imperial powers, and whose founding was premised on the dispossession of Palestinians, was now cast as a newly liberated country, in the same class as India and Indonesia, which had also won their independence from colonial occupation. The Zionist struggle was all the more heroic because, unlike India and Indonesia, they also had to fight off fanatical Arab neighbors, unwilling to accept the existence of Israel.

It was not too hard for Israel to achieve this makeover - from a belligerent to a victim - at least for Western audiences that had been complicit in the Zionist enterprise. This makeover was achieved and sustained through movies, media and manipulation. It was directed from the United States, where the Jewish community had grown to command considerable influence over the media, the Congress and the Presidency. Ironically, the Nazi terror had provided two vital inputs into the creation of Israel. By fuelling Jewish emigration from Europe, it gave Israel the population it needed to create an exclusive Jewish state. A similar and simultaneous flow westward strengthened the power of the Jewish community in United States - the new hegemon whose resources and power would become Israel's most important assets in its colonizing project.

The Zionists would make capital out of the Holocaust in their campaign to shield Israel from critics. As never before, the Holocaust had created a fund of sympathy for the Jews, sympathy born of guilt. This Holocaust capital was not only conserved through endless commemoration - in movies, media, and museums - but, more importantly, it was deepened by the claim that its horrors were unique in history. Never before had a people been targeted for total extermination, and never before had they faced death through incineration. As the survivors of the greatest, most unique crime against humanity, the Jews and Israel could claim several advantages, all of which would be turned systematically against their victims: the Palestinians.

With predictable regularity, the Holocaust capital was used to stifle any talk of Israeli injustice towards Palestinians. The West had been complicit, directly and indirectly, in the Holocaust, this most unique of all crimes. And since their guilt and remorse over this crime was correspondingly deep, this could be exploited to Israel's advantage. In the decades after the second world war, there were few Westerner who dared to see past their guilt; the movies and media made sure that time did not diminish these feelings of guilt. And those who did were quickly muzzled with charges of anti-Semitism.

The Holocaust capital was used to make the Palestinian claims of victimization untenable. This became a logical impossibility. The Jews - and, therefore, Israel - were the super victims, who completely overshadowed all other victims. How, then, could any people claim that they were the victims of the Jews? It became a logical contradiction to claim that you were the victims of the world's super victims. The Palestinians did not have a prayer: their plaints would never be heard in the court of Western opinion.

It was not enough that the Palestinians should be denied victimhood: the power of the super victim was used to denounce them. The Palestinians could not assert any rights - to their land, their freedom, or dignity - if this went against the interests or needs of the super victims. The Palestinians had acted immorally in seeking to restrict the free immigration of Jews, who were fleeing persecution, and whose flight was their only alternative to Nazi death camps. By refusing to share their land with the Jews, the Palestinians had actually contributed to their extermination. In other words, the very existence of the Palestinians - at least during the 1930s and 1940s - invited charges of immorality.

When the occasion demanded, Israel's victimhood would also be used to justify violence against the Palestinians. After all, the Israelis argued, we are victims of the greatest, most unique crime in history: nothing we can do could even begin to equal that. Among others, this logic was employed by Chaim Weizmann, the first president of Israel, when protesting the West's muted concerns over the plight of Palestinian refugees. The problem of Palestinian refugees, he argued, was nothing compared to the murder of six million Jews.

Once the Palestinians had been chosen to bear the burden of the Holocaust - they had contributed to it, and would pay for it - the case against them was closed: at least before the bar of Western reason, whose greatest thinkers have nearly always been happy to defend the greatest crimes of their societies. Western conquests, exterminations and enslavement of entire peoples, the bloody wars they imposed on distant peoples, the brutalization of entire continents: all were excused, whitewashed in the name of civilization, Christianity, modernity, and revolution. The Palestinians too had been chosen for extinction: they were to be voided to make room for a people pursuing higher goals, a chosen people, themselves the victims of other chosen races.

After this, the demonization of Palestinians was easy. The right of return of Palestinians was first demolished with a few bold hammer strokes. They had left because they had been ordered to, in order to allow the Arab armies to move swiftly against Jewish populated areas. Since they had left on their own - they had forfeited their right to return, or compensation for the property they had left behind. This concoction became folklore, not only in Israel and among Jews, but also in United States and much of Europe. No one asked if the Arab armies had ever ordered the Palestinians to flee: no one asked because such orders were never given. No one asked if any people would abandon their homes, villages, and towns, if they did not face terror. No one asked because that was the choice offered to them by the Haganah, the Irgun and Stern Gang.

The Arab rejection of the partition of Palestine was proof positive of their innate hostility towards Jews. The Arabs had attacked Israel because they were murderers and Muslim fanatics who hated Jews and Christians; they were feudalistic and felt threatened by a society based on modern foundations. It never occurred to anyone - in Israel, United States, or Britain - that the Arabs had done what any people faced with conquest have done - defend themselves. But this elemental right was not granted to a people so dehumanized as the Arabs.

The presence of Palestinian in refugee camps demonstrated Arab intransigence and, not to forget, perversity. Wars have always created refugees, but the refugees do not linger in refugee camps: they have been routinely absorbed by the host countries. If the Palestinians still live in refugee camps - in Jordan, Lebanon, Egypt and Syria - that is because these Arab countries have used them as pawns in their campaign against Israel. The Palestinians too have cooperated in this dastardly game - by refusing to leave the camps.

The deception and irony in this argument was lost on Western audiences. A million Palestinians had been turned into refugees not because of wars: they were refugees because they had been forced out of their homes under a program of ethnic cleansing. No one was asking the Zionists if they had any responsibility in perpetuating the problem of Palestinian refugees - that they were rotting in refugee camps because they had been denied the right, guaranteed under international law, to return to their homes. The war that had caused them to flee their homes was now over: why couldn't they return to their homes?

There was another, perhaps deeper irony. The Zionists demanded that the problem of Palestinian refugees should be solved by the Arab countries: they hosted them, so they should absorb them. And yet the Zionists had not demanded the same rights for European Jewry who had lived in Europe for two thousand years and perhaps longer, and who were mostly of European stock. Instead, they had argued that the Jewish communities - who had lived for hundreds of years in Britain, Russia, Ukraine, Spain, Greece and Bulgaria - were a distinct people who must have a separate homeland. And that homeland - for a European people - was not to be founded in Europe, but in Palestine.

When Arafat refused to accept the scraps he was offered at Camp David in July 2000, a new lie was born: the lie that Arafat had walked away from "an extremely generous offer" that gave the Palestinians 90 percent of the West Bank and Gaza. The offer made at Camp David was indeed very generous. But it was generous to Israel, since Israel would retain control over the borders of West Bank and Gaza, their water resources, their air space, and nearly all of old Jerusalem. Israel would also keep most of the settlements, together with road links to Israel that Palestinians would need permits to cross. The Palestinians were being asked to legalize their dependency - their bondage to Israel - in a new system of apartheid sponsored and protected by United States.

And yet American commentators have gnashed their teeth at the stupidity that prompted Arafat to turn down this 'very generous offer.' It was indeed a generous offer - the most generous that Israel had ever made. And it was generous precisely because Israel had offered nothing to the Palestinians before: nothing other than occupation, violations of their rights, seizure of their lands, demolition of their homes, arrests, tortures and executions. This was not a lie. This was the most generous offer Israel had ever made.

Once the second Intifada started, and the Palestinians were back in the streets, throwing stones at Israeli armor, the Israelis Defense Forces responded predictably. Within the first week, they had killed more than a hundred Palestinians, many of them children. However, this was no problem for the Israelis. When the world took notice, this was expertly blamed on their parents. They were sacrificing their children to gain some cheap publicity. In no time, the American media too was parroting these heinous charges.

And so the lies, deceptions and sophistry employed to defeat the Palestinians have persisted. Indeed, they have multiplied and metamorphosed to suit the changing circumstances, the changing needs of an anachronistic colonizing project. As soon as these lies are announced - by Israeli officials or Israeli media - they are taken up by a thousand American experts, anchors, reporters and columnists, taken up and circulated verbatim. They rapidly enter into American public discourse, sanctified by op-ed writers, bandied at Congressional hearings, and trumpeted by Presidential hopefuls. The myths displace history.

Like the biblical narratives - of Cain's murder, Ham's curse, Hagar's abandonment - that have supported generations of murderous ideologies, the myths created by Zionist colonizers has killed Arabs, Jews and a few Americans too. As long as these myths are nurtured and propagated, as long as they substitute for history, they will continue to kill. They may well end up killing our dearest hope - the hope of a better world, a single world, united, serving all humanity. These myths must be opposed before they destroy our humanity, house by house, camp by camp, city by city - as it does today, in Nablus, Tulkarm, Qalqiliya, Ramallah, Bethlehem and Jenin.

M. Shahid Alam is professor of economics at Northeastern University, Boston. His recent book, Poverty from the Wealth of Nations was published by Palgrave (2000). Copyright: M. Shahid Alam.


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  32 Comments   Comment

  1. Khalid al- Wadi from USA

    Assalamu alaikum wa rahmatuallahi wa baraktahu! Professor Alam this is one of the best pieces I have ever read about the suffering of our brothers and sisters in occupied Palestine. It contains historical truths about the roots of the conflict instead of the usual nonsensical Zionist/American sound bytes that are full of meaningless lies. This article should be the required reading and published publicly by every major news network in the world, but of course that's just wishful thinking. Because the truth is almost always concealed it reminds of a quote from a Palestinian farmer whose land was recently confiscated:" This is an oppressive, immoral world, where the strong consume the weak." Insh Allah, Palestine will be free! Allahu Akbar!

  2. Mariah Zierk from U.S.A

    I enjoyed reading your article about Palestine

    and the wealth. I was wondering if you have

    any other related articles which would be of

    interest to me. Look forward hearing from you

    in the near future.


  3. Josh from USA

    So what is the Palestinian claim that precedes Biblical Israel? were they the Canaanites? I've never heard this before. Please refer me to some resources to read about this.

    Thank you.



  5. Jenny Smithe from Canada

    Excellent article! It details factual evidence often left out of the usual discourse on Palestine. History is being manipulated right before our eyes. It will take many more articles like this to set things straight. I commend Mr. Alam for his insight!

  6. Millie from P.R.



  7. Bob from US

    I was born and raised Catholic in the heart of the US. I went to 12 years of Catholic school (which may be why I am so anti-Catholic today)l. My grandparents and great-grandparents came to this country over 100 years ago. I have many Jewish friends and I have been to Israel a few times. However, I have also benn all over the US and Europe and have many friends who are Hindu, Muslim, atheist, and even "pagan".

    I do believe our media and government to be overly favorable to Israel. I think it is wrong what is happening to the Palestinian people, and I do not believe what the Israeli government says. I agree with much of what this article says, and I simply wanted to say that you should not judge all Americans by the actions of their government. Although we claim to have this wonderful democracy, I believe the sad fact is that even here, today, power is held by the wealthy few. I personally believe that much of US policy and actions in the middle east is dictated by the powerful trying to keep oil and gas prices down in order to stay in power. For there will be no dramatic change in our democratic government (i.e. Democrats and Republicans have made many arrangments to exclude any thrid party success) as long suburban soccer moms can get cheap gas for their minivans. The powerful know this, count on it, and work to ensure it.

  8. Mohammad A. Siddiqui from USA

    Jazakallah brother Shahid. May Allah give all of us the strength to spread what the truth is, and the ability to stand by it, Ameen.

  9. Yasmin from UAE

    I like your article very much.I send the Email about this article to my friends.

  10. mohamed from canada

    may allah reward you greatly brother because you have shown me the real story of israel and palestine that i never knew about.

  11. American Muslim from U.S.A.

    The solution is to ship psychopath sharon and his supporters out of the area and put them on a reservation in Nevada where they can live in the peace they say they want. The $6 billion a year spent by the U.S. can be plowed back into the U.S. economy and the Palestinians can return to their homes. Then the world can breath a bit easer. Every one gets what they want at no one else's expense.

    This is the solution.

    As long as Israel exists as a nation given to the Jews by the Christians at the Muslims expense the world knows that the west doesn't understand the concept of equality and justice. Nonviolence by the Palestinians was tried for over 50 years and the new generation knows that the Christians and Jews just used it as an excuse to steal more land. So this generation will likely never try it again.

    As long as Israel exists where it is, Christian and Jewish talk of peace will be considered a prelude to a backstabbing by all the many people that have seen their implementation of the concepts of justice, equality, democracy, human rights, and peace, what they euphemistically refer to as "life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness"

    The solution is to ship psychopath sharon and his supporters out of the area and put them on a reservation in Nevada where they can live in the peace they say they want. "Never again" should mean that no one should suffer because some people consider their "nationalism" of greater value than someone else's human rights. Instead it has come to mean that "never again" will we treat others as having validity. If they want safety, then let them live in the U.S. on a reservation, not on another's back. I don't call for the death of Israel just transplant it where it can do nobody harm.

  12. Ashraf Khan from Canada

    In response to comment #3652: I guess the Jewish

    holocaust was also a wonderful piece of fiction...

  13. Aziza from USA

    I would like to forward this article to my non muslim friends, radio stations and TV stations. How can I do that?

  14. Professor N.T. Fadha from USA

    A brilliant, honest, account... explaining the irony of sustaining the Enron-titis in Israel... The Zionist lie that appears so powerful and invincible but will undoubtedly crumble someday by the weight of its own sins and contradictions by the will of God... the way Enron and Apartheid did...Have no doubt about it!!!

  15. alam from usa


  16. Rafee from USA

    To the Author: Please write about how to tackle this problem as Muslims... lay down some strategies that will change the world for Muslims. So that all Muslims can follow this and work on this ...say in about 25 years we become the power behind the media and decision making process...instead of being blamed and get blamed...lets work on those policies and make this world be Just for Muslims and every body.

  17. Joshua from US

    We Muslims know all these myths and lies that the Zionist and American friends commit. The question is what are we going to do to stop these lies. Learned Muslims need to get more active. I read once that the power of the pen is more deadly then the power of the sword.

  18. B CHASE from U.S.A.,NEVADA


  19. Alifah from USA

    It is hard to earn a Nobel Prize while suffering colonialism, apartheid, and Israeli terrorism. These conditions can be a tad distracting. Fortunate for the recipients that the NP began in 1901. Had it begun much earlier, the Muslim/Jewish scale would surely have tilted the other way.

  20. Amed from USA

    Excellent piece of history.

    It teaches people where it started where we are.

    Continue telling the truth.


  21. Shaneeza from The Caribbean

    This is an excellent article, my thanks and appreciation to the author. The sad thing about the whole Palestine/Isreal issue is that people have been constantly combarded with (as the writer correctly stated ) "lies" and "deception" about the palestian's reaction toward their suffering and denial of rights. It's about time the media/Isreal stop manipulating people about the true reason behind the Palestian's anger, an anger and a need for reclimation by the Palestian people that would be justified by any "Just" person. People need to be told the truth, and if it cannot be accomplished through the media, then articles such as these would just have to do the job.

    My thanks to the author once again.

  22. Alex Nodopaka from USA

    I am amazed by the continued debate over Palestinian lands. I am amazed that 15 million Jews are a thorn amidst 1.2 billion Moslems. Would it not be smart of the Moslems to give the Palestinians a chunk of their land and get on with life?

    I am amazed that 1.2 billions Moslems still preach a Stone Age philosophy yet use western technology to propagate their outdated philosophy of life. I believe that Islam is where the failure of the Moslem world lies. The failure is within Islam because it is in basic contradiction to western philosophy. Islam is not flexible enough to survive in a continued socio-economic evolution.

    Isn't it obvious to the Moslems that they stagnate within their own countries yet blossom everywhere else where Islam is insignificant? The appeal of Islam is similar to the appeal of Communism, it appeals to the have not and since there are always more of the have not no wonder at their numerical increase. But a numerical increase is useless when all Islam offers is an empty belly and a full head of meaningless slogans. The empty bellies of Moslems within Islamic countries are creating the unrest. Idleness of the educated Moslems within Islamic countries creates unrest.

    I am convinced that were the Palestinians to get their land and the Arab oil were to be removed as a major economic factor, that the unrest of Moslems would continue unabated. Would it not be intelligent of the Moslems to invent an alternative to oil?

    Don't 1.2 billion Moslems possess enough brainpower to achieve such a feat by either using western technology or their own to achieve such a coup and get a Nobel award to top it off?

    Also, it is not that the West is stealing Arab oil. Arabs get paid handsomely for that, it appears that the distribution of that wealth within their own countries is grossly misdirected and mismanaged. I would think that with the untold billions paid the Arabs, their lands should be oases from borders to borders.

  23. Archie Sirianni from USA

    A well written and welcome essay which describes the colonial history of the region known as either "Palestine" or "Israel" depending on the "truths" to which you subscribe. This essay should be mandatory reading for all citizens of the United States. It appears that U.S. tax dollars are being used to indirectly kill a herioc and determined bastion of "freedom fighters" defending thier homes. Further, every politician in the U.S. should have to pass a test on this exact subject in order to demonstrate that they grasp the history of the region. U.S. politicians who do not firmly understands the facts versus the fictions should not be allowed to stay in office, or at the least, should be banned from voting on any legislation regarding distribution of U.S. tax dollars to Israel. Today, I am going to buy professor Alam's book, Poverty From The Wealth Of Nations. In the interim, I am going to copy this essay, email it to everyone I know, and ask that they do the same. "The truth" is a moving target, but professor Alam's article helps seperate the wheat from the chaff. Lastly, I am going to pray that U.S. charity begin at home, and the tax dollars sent to Israel ends tommorrow.

  24. micheale franklin from usa

    Good works,true and important for us to know this.

    no one tells ths other side of the coin all we know is the jrwish point of view thru a media the is not doing a fair coverage.

    Please send me the authors email addy

  25. mlb from usa

    Good work and true...

    Please send me the authors email addy

    to work with him in bringing out the truth in america about the real story in the holy land

  26. micheale franklin from usa

    I will be happy to help you regain your land:

    start a voter block in america where all your people,pals,arabs.muslims,christins

    can have a voice to tell america how to be fair and even handed instead of letting the other side dictate your destiny in the hallways of U S congress with the guns of jewish voters and the

    tactis of Aipac...

    Unite your people in the USA where the real battle is fought and u will have a better chance...

    write back and I will help u.

  27. Abdulrahman from usa

    It was once said that you can fool most of the people sometimes, and you can fool some of the people most of the time, but you will never be able to fool all of the people all the time.

    You can only cover lies with more lies, but sooner or later you will run of lies ..... Israeli's lies and deceptions are running out.

    Excellent article.




    19.6% of World's Population

    1.2 billion Muslims


    1957 Albert Camus

    1988 - Najib Mahfooz 1988.


    1978 - Mohamed Anwar El-Sadat

    1994 - Yaser Arafat


    1990 Elias James Corey

    1999 - Ahmed Zewail


    1960 Peter Brian Medawar

    1998 Ferid Mourad

    He says, "It is too small a thing that

    You should be My Servant

    To raise up the tribes of Jacob and to

    restore the preserved ones of Israel;

    I will also make You a light of the nations

    So that My salvation may reach

    to the end of the earth."

    (Isaiah 49:6)



    14.1 Million Jews


    1910 - Paul Heyse

    1927 - Henri Bergson

    1958 - Boris Pasternak

    1966 - Shmuel Yosef Agnon

    1966 - Nelly Sachs

    1976 - Saul Bellow

    1978 - Isaac Bashevis Singer

    1981 - Elias Canetti

    1987 - Joseph Brodsky

    1991 - Nadine Gordimer

    World Peace

    1911 - Alfred Fried

    1911 - Tobias Michael Carel Asser

    1968 - Rene Cassin

    1973 - Henry Kissinger

    1978 - Menachem Begin

    1986 - Elie Wiesel

    1994 - Shimon Peres

    1994 - Yitzhak Rabin


    1905 - Adolph Von Baeyer

    1906 - Henri Moissan

    1910 - Otto Wallach

    1915 - Richard Willstaetter

    1918 - Fritz Haber

    1943 - George Charles de Hevesy

    1961 - Melvin Calvin

    1962 - Max Ferdinand Perutz

    1972 - William Howard Stein

    1977 - Ilya Prigogine

    1979 - Herbert Charles Brown

    1980 - Paul Berg

    1980 - Walter Gilbert

    1981 - Roald Hoffmann

    1982 - Aaron Klug


  29. cabdiraxim mohamed ali from somalia

    action speaks louder than words, muslims must act now , both the diplomtic and economic front.

  30. sayeed from USA

    Extermely informative. Can somebody provide me the so called "Clinton peace plan" document please? Where can I search for that on the internet? Thanks to M. Shahid Alam again.

  31. Khalil Khelah from USA

    An excellent article. I have one correction about the origins of the Arabs. Not all the Arabs are descendents of Ismael. The origins of the Arabs are from Adnan and Qahtan. The descendents of Adnan are from Ismael.