A new nation was also born - Pakistan. The border lines created on a hastily drawn map.
What followed was on an unprecedented level - 15 million people swapped countries as Muslims, Hindus and Sikhs feared discrimination if they stayed where they were. The mass migration cost more than a million lives.
There have been three wars between India and Pakistan since Independence Day, divided Kashmir remains disputed, and religious and ethnic intolerance continues.
But that has not stopped the celebrations throughout the two countries. A 31-gun salute marked the occasion in Pakistan's capital Islamabad.
Presenter: Sohail Rahman
Raza Karim - International lawyer and activist based in Lahore, Pakistan
Gurharpal Singh - Professor of Sikh and Punjab Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies, London
Uday Bhaskar - Director, Society for Policy Studies, New Delhi, India
Published on Aug 14, 2017