Before the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, a person who wants to perform pilgrimage (Hajj) pronounces the intention to perform Umrah while approaching the Miqat. A second intention for the actual Hajj is pronounced at a later period. There are several rites to properly complete the Hajj and Umrah.
The rites of Umrah and Hajj may include but are not limited to:
Putting Ihram, performing supererogatory (Sunnah) prayers, making several types of Tawaf, reciting Talbiyah, doing Sa’ee between Safa and Marwah, trimming and/or cutting hair, praying and staying in Mina, praying and standing in Arafah, praying and staying in Muzdalifah, throwing pebbles in three Jamrahs, sacrificing an animal, praying behind Maqam Ibrahim, and drinking from the well of ZamZam.
In the case of Hajj at-Tamattu, after completing the Umrah, the pilgrim trims his/her hair, showers, and changes into everyday clothes. These steps complete the Umrah portion. All restrictions of the Ihram are temporarily lifted. The pilgrim waits until the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah to start the rites of Hajj.
On the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, the pilgrim pronounces a new niyyah at the place to perform Hajj. There is no need to go to Miqat for this. The pilgrim changes into Ihram in the prescribed manner and proceeds to Mina soon after the Fajr Prayers.
Proclaiming the Niyyah for Hajj
Niyyah: “O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj. Make it easy for me and accept it from me. I make the niyyah for Hajj and enter into the state of Ihram for the sake of Allah alone, the Most High.”
اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْحَجَّ فَيَسِّرْهُ لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهُ مِنِّيْ
Putting on Ihram After Fajr
The distinctive garb of the male pilgrim is worn during Hajj or Umrah. It consists of two pieces of white, un-sewn and plain cloth. One of the pieces is wrapped around the midriff to cover his body from just above his navel to his ankles, and the other is draped around his shoulders to cover the upper body. For ladies, their ordinary and unpretentious clothes of everyday wear constitute their Ihram. Its purpose is to demonstrate universality, totality and humility of the pilgrim.
During Ihram, the following acts are forbidden: Cutting hair, shaving any parts of the body, clipping nails, putting perfumes or colognes, killing or hunting animals, sexual intercourse, making marriage proposals, or marriage contracts.
Praying 2 Rak'at Nafl At Miqat
Miqat is an imaginary boundary around Makkah. A prospective pilgrim cannot cross this boundary without first changing into Ihram. The pilgrim changes into Ihram at Miqat and pronounces the intention to perform Hajj or Umrah.
The Miqat boundary is anchored by different townships and locations in different directions around the Kaabah. They are:
a) Dhu al-Hulayfah in the North
b) Yalamlam in the South-East
c) Dhāt 'Irq in the North-East
d) Al-Juhfah in the North-West
e) Qarn al-Manazil in the East.
For people living inside the Miqat area permanently, their place of residence is their Miqat.
The devotional act of circumambulating (i.e. walking around) the Ka'bah while reciting prayers and supplications. One complete circuit around the Ka'bah constitutes a shawt (pl. ashwat), and seven ashwat complete one Tawaf.
During Tawaf (circumambulating), the pilgrim cannot enter the Ka'bah nor stop anywhere around it.
Sa'ee is the devotional act of walking seven times between the knolls of Safa and Marwah. This act retraces the footsteps of Hajar, wife of Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh), during her desperate search for water for her infant son Ismail (pbuh) after they were left in the desert by Prophet Ibrahim in response to a Divine vision.
A small knoll approximately 200 yards from the Ka'bah inside the Masjid Al-Haram
A small knoll (i.e., hillock) located approximately one hundred and fifty yards from the Ka'bah.
A devotional recital of the following words by the pilgrims during Hajj and Umrah.
لَبَّيْكَ ٱللَّٰهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ، لَبَّيْكَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ، إِنَّ ٱلْحَمْدَ وَٱلنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَٱلْمُلْكَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَكَ
Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik. Labbaik La Sharika Laka Labbaik. Innal-Hamda, Wan-Ni'mata Laka wal-Mulk. La Sharika Lak.
Here I am at Thy service O Lord, here I am, Here I am at Thy service and Thou hast no partner. Thine alone is all Praise and All Bounty, and Thine alone is the Sovereignty. Thou hast no partner.
The Talbiyah is a prayer as well as an assertion of the pilgrim's conviction that he/she intends to perform Hajj only for the glory of Allah. The pilgrim starts the recital upon changing into the Ihram, and continues to recite it frequently throughout Hajj. Male pilgrims are required to recite the Talbiyah loudly whereas female pilgrims are required to recite it in low voice.
Going to Mina
The Pilgrim goes to Mina on the 8th of Thul-Hijjah anytime after Fajr prayer but before Zuhr.
Mina is a desert location approximately three miles from Makkah where several Hajj rites are performed.
Praying in Mina
The pilgrim must perform the daily prayers in Mina starting with Zuhur Prayer. Prayers are shortened from 4 to 2 Rakahs but not combined.
Staying Overnight in Mina
The pilgrim must stay overnight in Mina, perform the Fajr prayer and leave after sunrise on the 9th of Thul-Hijjah.
Prayer upon Departing from Mina:
O Allah! To You I turn, praying to approach Your Bounteous Countenance. Let my sins be forgiven and Hajj be acceptable, and have Mercy on me. Allow me not to be disappointed, for You have power over all things.
Completion of the First Day.
This completes the first Day of Hajj, also known as the Day of Tarwiyah.