وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ البقرة ١٩٦

Complete the pilgrimages, major and minor, for the sake of God (2:196).

‘Whoever performs Hajj and does not commit sin, nor disputes unjustly (during Hajj), then he returns from Hajj as pure and free from sins as on the day on which his mother gave birth to him’ (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).

  • Hajj is one of the largest religious gatherings in the world.
  • Two to five million people from around the globe convene to affirm their commitment to God and commemorate the example and sacrifice of Prophet Abraham.
  • Hajj is one of the five pillars of Islam. Most Muslims perform it at least once in their lives. However, Hajj is not mandatory unlike the other four pillars, because of the hardships of the ritual. So, Islam has taken into consideration both the financial and physical ability of the individual, regarding the performance of Hajj.
  • The rites of Hajj are performed from the 8th to the 12th of Dul Hijjah.
  • Eid Al-Adha falls on the 10th day of the month of Due Hijjah.
  • All male pilgrims wear the same simple attire, which consists of two white clothes that cover the body called Ihram. Women wear a simple abaya; but they have their heads covered with their faces showing. The simple dress is a symbol of purity and equality.
  • Hajj is a journey into self-reflection and personality development. It’s an experience that allows the person to live the brotherhood and sisterhood of humanity. It is a journey for learning the art of sacrifice; allowing pilgrims to connect with the divine.


Hajj Frequently Asked Questions
What is the origin of Hajj?
Muslims trace its origin Back to Prophets Abraham (Ibrahim) and Ishmael (Ismail) (RA) as mentioned in the Quran: “We showed Abraham the site of the House, saying, Do not assign partners to Me; Purify My House for those who circle around it, those who stand to pray, and those who bow and prostrate themselves. Proclaim the Pilgrimage to all people. They will come to you on foot and on every kind of swift mount, emerging from every deep mountain pass.” (22:26-27) Read more
What is the large black cube in Makkah?
This is called Kaaba. It is believed to be the prayer house Abraham and Ishmael built to worship God and invite people to worship Him. It holds great significance for Muslims, and is the direction every Muslims faces when performing daily prayers. Read more
Where is Hajj Performed?
Hajj is performed in the city of Mecca in present day Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It is performed in different areas starting in Makkah, then Mina, Arafat, Muzdalifah, again to Mina, and finally they return to Mecca. Read more
What happened to the rituals of Hajj after Abraham?
According to historical and Islamic narrative, the tribe that was a guardian of Kaaba started to go astray by placing idols in Kaaba and praying to them. Throughout time, they strayed away from the Abrahamic rituals and monotheistic concept. Read more
Was the Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) imitating the pagans of Mecca by performing pilgrimage?
Despite the fact that the pagans of Mecca before and during the time of the prophet performed pilgrimage to Mecca, their rituals were directed at various idols. The Prophet destroyed all the idols and reestablished the rites as dictated by Allah and continuing the legacy of Prophet Abraham (RA). Read more
How many times did the Prophet (PBUH) perform Hajj?
He performed one pilgrimage in his life called "Farewell Pilgrimage" or Hajjat al-Wida (Arabic: حجة الوداع) in the year 10AH or 632CE. However, different views mention that he performed two to three times or yearly pilgrimages before his migration to Medina. Read more
What is the difference between Hajj and Umrah?
The main difference is the time and required rituals for each. Hajj occurs at a specific period of the year, while Umrah can be performed at any given time. As for the rituals, they both require Ihram, Tawaf, Sai and Shaving the head for men. For Hajj stopping at Arafat and stoning of the devil are added requirements. Read more
What is the black stone?
It is a holy relic found at the Southeast corner of Kaaba. According to Islamic narrative, this stone was originally white but turned black due to sins of humanity. Read more
Can non-Muslims perform Hajj?
Pilgrimage is not restricted to Muslims. Most religions (monotheistic or not) do have a form of pilgrimage. Hajj is a ritual of the Monotheistic Abrahamic faith and its steps were determined by the Prophet (PBUH) to glorify Allah. Read more
Can non-Muslims enter Mecca?
There is no religious reason to limit the entry to Mecca to only Muslims. However, due to the sheer number of people who visit the city for Hajj or Umrah every year, the Saudi authorities limited access to the city. Read more
How many people perform Hajj?
Around 3 million people perform Hajj every year. However, in 2020 and 2021 due to COVID-19 pandemic, this number was reduced to a few hundreds to safeguard the health of pilgrims. Read more

Day 1
Before the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, a person who wants to perform pilgrimage (Hajj) pronounces the intention to perform Umrah while approaching the Miqat. A second intention for the actual Hajj is pronounced at a later period. There are several rites to properly complete the Hajj and Umrah.
The rites of Umrah and Hajj may include but are not limited to: Putting Ihram, performing supererogatory (Sunnah) prayers, making several types of Tawaf, reciting Talbiyah, doing Sa’ee between Safa and Marwah, trimming and/or cutting hair, praying and staying in Mina, praying and standing in Arafah, praying and staying in Muzdalifah, throwing pebbles in three Jamrahs, sacrificing an animal, praying behind Maqam Ibrahim, and drinking from the well of ZamZam.

In the case of Hajj at-Tamattu, after completing the Umrah, the pilgrim trims his/her hair, showers, and changes into everyday clothes. These steps complete the Umrah portion. All restrictions of the Ihram are temporarily lifted. The pilgrim waits until the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah to start the rites of Hajj.

On the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, the pilgrim pronounces a new niyyah at the place to perform Hajj. There is no need to go to Miqat for this. The pilgrim changes into Ihram in the prescribed manner and proceeds to Mina soon after the Fajr Prayers.

Proclaiming the Niyyah for Hajj
Niyyah: “O Allah! I intend to perform Hajj. Make it easy for me and accept it from me. I make the niyyah for Hajj and enter into the state of Ihram for the sake of Allah alone, the Most High.”

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّيْ أُرِيْدُ الْحَجَّ فَيَسِّرْهُ لِيْ وَتَقَبَّلْهُ مِنِّيْ

Putting on Ihram After Fajr
The distinctive garb of the male pilgrim is worn during Hajj or Umrah. It consists of two pieces of white, un-sewn and plain cloth. One of the pieces is wrapped around the midriff to cover his body from just above his navel to his ankles, and the other is draped around his shoulders to cover the upper body. For ladies, their ordinary and unpretentious clothes of everyday wear constitute their Ihram. Its purpose is to demonstrate universality, totality and humility of the pilgrim.

During Ihram, the following acts are forbidden: Cutting hair, shaving any parts of the body, clipping nails, putting perfumes or colognes, killing or hunting animals, sexual intercourse, making marriage proposals, or marriage contracts.

Praying 2 Rak'at Nafl At Miqat
Miqat is an imaginary boundary around Makkah. A prospective pilgrim cannot cross this boundary without first changing into Ihram. The pilgrim changes into Ihram at Miqat and pronounces the intention to perform Hajj or Umrah.

The Miqat boundary is anchored by different townships and locations in different directions around the Kaabah. They are:

a) Dhu al-Hulayfah in the North
b) Yalamlam in the South-East
c) Dhāt 'Irq in the North-East
d) Al-Juhfah in the North-West
e) Qarn al-Manazil in the East.

For people living inside the Miqat area permanently, their place of residence is their Miqat.

Making Tawaf
The devotional act of circumambulating (i.e. walking around) the Ka'bah while reciting prayers and supplications. One complete circuit around the Ka'bah constitutes a shawt (pl. ashwat), and seven ashwat complete one Tawaf. During Tawaf (circumambulating), the pilgrim cannot enter the Ka'bah nor stop anywhere around it.

Performing Sa'ee
Sa'ee is the devotional act of walking seven times between the knolls of Safa and Marwah. This act retraces the footsteps of Hajar, wife of Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh), during her desperate search for water for her infant son Ismail (pbuh) after they were left in the desert by Prophet Ibrahim in response to a Divine vision. Safa:
A small knoll approximately 200 yards from the Ka'bah inside the Masjid Al-Haram

A small knoll (i.e., hillock) located approximately one hundred and fifty yards from the Ka'bah.

Reciting Talbiya
A devotional recital of the following words by the pilgrims during Hajj and Umrah.

لَبَّيْكَ ٱللَّٰهُمَّ لَبَّيْكَ، لَبَّيْكَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَكَ لَبَّيْكَ، إِنَّ ٱلْحَمْدَ وَٱلنِّعْمَةَ لَكَ وَٱلْمُلْكَ لَا شَرِيكَ لَكَ Labbaik Allahumma Labbaik. Labbaik La Sharika Laka Labbaik. Innal-Hamda, Wan-Ni'mata Laka wal-Mulk. La Sharika Lak.
Here I am at Thy service O Lord, here I am, Here I am at Thy service and Thou hast no partner. Thine alone is all Praise and All Bounty, and Thine alone is the Sovereignty. Thou hast no partner.

The Talbiyah is a prayer as well as an assertion of the pilgrim's conviction that he/she intends to perform Hajj only for the glory of Allah. The pilgrim starts the recital upon changing into the Ihram, and continues to recite it frequently throughout Hajj. Male pilgrims are required to recite the Talbiyah loudly whereas female pilgrims are required to recite it in low voice.

Going to Mina
The Pilgrim goes to Mina on the 8th of Thul-Hijjah anytime after Fajr prayer but before Zuhr.

Mina is a desert location approximately three miles from Makkah where several Hajj rites are performed.

Praying in Mina
The pilgrim must perform the daily prayers in Mina starting with Zuhur Prayer. Prayers are shortened from 4 to 2 Rakahs but not combined.

Staying Overnight in Mina
The pilgrim must stay overnight in Mina, perform the Fajr prayer and leave after sunrise on the 9th of Thul-Hijjah.

Prayer upon Departing from Mina:
O Allah! To You I turn, praying to approach Your Bounteous Countenance. Let my sins be forgiven and Hajj be acceptable, and have Mercy on me. Allow me not to be disappointed, for You have power over all things.

Completion of the First Day.
This completes the first Day of Hajj, also known as the Day of Tarwiyah.
Day 2
Going to Arafah
After leaving Mina, the pilgrim heads toward Arafah.

Arafah is a desert location approximately nine miles from Makkah. Pilgrims don't have to get crowded on the Mount of Rahmah (Mountain of Mercy). They can stay in any place within the boundaries of Arafah..

Prayer Upon Entering Arafah:
O Allah! Forgive my sins, help me repent to you, and grant me all that I beseech of You. Whenever I turn, let me see goodness. Allah be praised! All Praise is due to Allah! There is no deity except Allah! And Allah is The Most Great.

Praying in Arafah
After settling down in the tents at Arafah, the pilgrim offers the Zuhur and Asr prayers in qasr (shortened from 4 to 2 rakah) and Jam' (combined), with one adhan and two separate Iqamahs.

Once in Arafah, the pilgrim should spend as much time in prayer and remembrance of Allah as possible. This is a very special day and the pilgrim may never see it again. Everyone must make the most out of it. No Nafl or any other prayers are performed, either before or after the obligatory prayers.

Staying in Arafah
The pilgrim stays in Arafah until sunset. It is recommended to spend the entire time reading the Quran, reciting the Talbiyah, offering supplications, and repenting to Allah.

Standing in Arafah:
In the late afternoon just before sunset, the pilgrims may stand outside the tent facing the Qiblah, and raise their hands, supplicating to Allah. There are no prescribed prayers for Wuquf (standing) in Arafah. During these sacred moments, the pilgrim is alone with Allah, praying to have his/her sins and lifelong shortcomings get forgiven. Communication with Allah in any language is acceptable.

Leaving for Muzdalifah
After sunset, the pilgrim departs for Muzdalifah quietly, always reciting the Talbiyah and other prayers.

Muzdalifah is a desert location approximately midway between Mina and Arafah. The pilgrim spends the night of the 10th of Thul-Hijjah here.

Offering Prayers in Muzdalifah
The pilgrim offers Maghrib and Isha prayers combining them and shortening the Isha. Thus, after the adhan is called, three rak'ahs of Maghrib are offered following the usual iqamah. Another iqamah (but not adhan) is called and then two rak'ahs of Isha are offered.

The pilgrim stays under the sky at Muzdalifah. No tents or other lodging facilities are available.

Collecting Pebbles
The pilgrim then walks to the foot of nearby hills, and collects about 70 pea-size pebbles for throwing.

The pebbles lying around the bathrooms facilities should not be collected. No one should leave Muzdalifah before Fajr without a legitimate excuse: only women, elderly, and weak people can leave after midnight.

Completion of Second Day
The pilgrim spends the night at Muzdalifah and offers Fajr there. Before sunrise, the pilgrim leaves for Mina on the morning of the 10th of Thul-Hijjah.

After Fajr prayer, the pilgrim goes through the al-Mash'ar al-Haram and makes du'a until the brightness of the sun is widespread. The pilgrim must speed up the walk when passing by the Muhasir valley.
Day 3
Going to Mina
Pilgrims head to Mina to throw the stones at the Jumurah. Weak and sick people can appoint others to throw stones on their behalf.

Throwing Pebbles
The pilgrim stones the Jamrat al-Kubra (Jamrat al-Aqabah) only, preferably before midday. Stoning the pillar symbolizes stoning the devil. The pebbles must touch the inside of the Jamrat's fence.

The Jamrat al-Kubra is the closest to Makkah. While throwing the stones, the pilgrim recites Bismillah, Allah-u-Akbar with each pebble.

Sacrificing an Animal
A sacrifice is now required for the pilgrim performing Hajj al-Tamattu or Hajj al-Qiran. The choice of the animal is either a sheep, or 1/7th of a cow or a camel shared with other people.

As For the pilgrim performing Hajj al-Ifrad, sacrificing the animal is recommended but not required. One third of the meat can be consumed, one third offered as a gift and one third distributed to the poor people. The sacrifice can be performed between the 10th and the 13th of Thul-Hijjah but not after the 13th.

Cutting Hair
The pilgrim may now shave/trim the hair, shower, and change into everyday clothes. The hair may be shaved or trimmed for men. It is recommended to start from the right side. For women, trimming only a finger tip's length is required.

Sacrificing an animal, cutting hair, and performing Tawaf al-Ifadah are alternate rituals. There is no specific order to perform them. All ritual places must be kept clean.

At this point in time, the regulations for Ihram no longer apply except that the pilgrim can not have conjugal relations with his/her spouse until after Tawaf al-Ifadah and Sa'ee. This is known as at-Tahalul al-Asghar, or a partial ending of the state of Ihram.

Celebrating Eid ul-Adha
Starting from the 10th of Thul-Hijjah and on, Muslims around the world celebrate this special occasion.

EID-AL-ADHA is celebrated on the tenth day of Zul-hijjah, the 12th and the last month of the Islamic calendar. It is a very joyous day; it is a feast of self-sacrifice, commitment and obedience to Allah. It commemorates the great act of obedience to Allah by the Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) in showing his willingness to sacrifice his son Ismael (pbuh). Allah accepted his sacrifice and replaced Prophet Ismael (as) with a lamb.

Going to Makkah
The pilgrim proceeds to al-Masjid al-Haram in Makkah for Tawaf al-Ifadah.

The pilgrim has the option to postpone Tawaf al-Ifadah to a later time. Menstruating women should not make tawaf until their period stops. If the pilgrim selected Hajj Ifrad or Qiran and has already made Sa'ee with the first Tawaf (the visiting Tawaf), there is no need to make Sa'ee again.

Performing Tawaf al-Ifadah
The pilgrim performs the Tawaf al-Ifadah after taking off the Ihram and changing into everyday clothes and before returning to Mina for pebble throwing.

Ihram, Idtiba and Ramal are not required in this Tawaf. However, Sa'ee is required for a Mutamatti, but is not required for Qarin or a Mufrid.

Maqam Ibrahim
The step-stone used by the Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) during the original construction of the Ka'bah.

The stone carries the imprints of his feet, and is housed in a glass enclosure on the North side of the Ka'bah.

After completing the Tawaf, it is good to pray 2 rak'ahs behind Maqam Ibrahim, if possible.

Prayer at Maqam Ibrahim:
O Allah! You know that which I keep secret and that which I disclose. Grant me Your pardon. You know my needs; grant me my wishes. You know that which is in my breast; forgive me my sins. O Allah! I seek from You a Faith that will saturate my heart, and a true conviction that will make me realize that naught can befall me except what You have decreed for me, and that I may find contentment in whatever You have given me. You are my patron in this world and the Hereafter. Allow me to die in a state of Islam and to be counted among the righteous. O Allah! On this occasion of our presence in this place, let not any of our sins go unforgiven, nor any of our worries undispelled, nor any of our needs unfulfilled or unfacilitated by You. And let all our tasks be made easy, and our minds relieved, and our hearts illuminated and our actions judged as pious. O Allah! Allow us to die as Muslims and to join the ranks of the virtuous without any distress. Amen, O Lord of the Universe.

Drinking from Zamzam
After completing the prayer at Maqam Ibrahim, the pilgrim may visit the Zamzam area and drink from the water.

Prayer at ZamZam:
O Allah! I seek from You profitable knowledge and bounteous sustenance and a cure from all ailments through Your Mercy, O Most Merciful of the mercifuls!

Performing Sa'ee between Safa and Marwah
The devotional act of walking seven times between the knolls of Safa and Marwah.

Returning to Mina
The pilgrim returns to Mina and stays there until the 12th or 13th of Thul-Hijjah for throwing the pebbles.

End of Day 3
Day 4
Performing Prayers in Mina
Back in Mina, the pilgrim performs all of the daily prayers, shortening the 4 Rak'ats prayers to 2 Rak'ats, but without combinig them.

Stoning the Jamrahs
The pilgrim stones the first Jamrah, then the Middle, and finally the Big one in the same consecutive order, after midday on all three days. Each throwing is constituted of 7 pebbles with the pilgrim reciting Allahu Akbar and making Dua.

Throwing on the 13th of Thul-Hijjah is optional. The pilgrim may return to Makkah after throwing pebbles on the 12th of Thul-Hijjah to perform Tawaf al-Wada (farewell circumambulation).

Staying in Mina The pilgrim should stay in Mina minimum from Fajr until Midnight.

Extending the Stay For the pilgrims who intend to stay only two days, they must leave before Maghrib.

For those intending to stay more, they can collect more pebbles.

End of Day 4.
Day 5
Stoning the Jamrahs
On the 12th of Thul-Hijjah, the same procedures as the 11th take place. The pilgrim stones the first Jamrah, then the Middle, and finally the Big one in the same consecutive order, after midday on all three days.

Throwing on the 13th of Thul-Hijjah is optional. The pilgrim may return to Makkah after throwing pebbles on the 12th of Thul-Hijjah to perform Tawaf al-Wada (farewell circumambulation).

Returning to Makkah
Pilgrims return to Makkah before Maghrib time after completing the stoning to perform Tawaf al-Wada.

Tawaf al-Wada
This is the farewell Tawaf that a pilgrim performs just before leaving Makkah for other destinations. It is the same as other Tawaf, going in 7 circuits, starting from the black stone line. After completing the Tawaf, it is good but not required to pray 2 Rak'ahs behind Maqam Ibrahim, or, if not possible, to pray any other 2 Rak'ahs facing the Kaabah.

Departing from Makkah
This completes the Hajj journey. It is recommended to leave Makkah as soon as the pilgrim completes the pilgrimage. The pilgrim also asks Allah to accept the rituals and promises to abide by the divine commands.

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) said:
"Whoever goes to Hajj without obscenity he or she will be forgiven as a new-born."

Another Hadith states:
"A Sound Hajj has no reward except Paradise".

HAJJ STEP BY STEP Day 1 | Day 2 | Day 3 | Day 4 | Day 5 |

makkah (mecca)


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