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Qur’anic Arabic

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Topic: Qur’anic Arabic
Posted By: fatima
Subject: Qur’anic Arabic
Date Posted: 20 December 2006 at 7:14am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

In this thread inshaAllah i am going to go through a course which alhamdulillah enables you to understand Holy Quran. This is a sixteen weeks course but i am going to put bit by bit every week inshaAllah so might take bit longer. It compirses of the most common words used in the Holy Quran and basic grammatical themes.

 

Unit 1

 

Kitābun             (M1)      Book                                                      

Zahratun          (F1)       Flower

Qalamun          (M1)      Pen

‘Aynun               (F1)       Eye

Kursiyyun       (M1)      Chair

Samāun              (F1)       Sky

BāBun                (M1)      Door

Ghurfatun        (F1)      Room

Khubzun          (M1)      Bread

Shamsun          (F1)       Sun

Rajulun              (M1)      Man

Imraātun         (F1)       Woman

Waladun          (M1)      Boy

Bintun                (F1)       Girl

طŦariiqun      (M1 + F1) Road

Kā’sun             (F1)       Glass

Wa                                   And

 Māidatun        (F1)           Table

Abun                  (M1)            Father

Ummun              (F1)             Mother

Mālun                 (M1)           Wealth

Yadun                 (F1)             Hand

Huwa                   (III M1)      He

Hiya                     (III F1)       She

Ānta                    (II M1)       You

Ānti                     (II F1)        You

Ānā                     (M1 + F1)     I

Hazā                    (M1)           This

Hazihi                 (F1)             This

Mann                   (M1 + F1)     Who

Āa / Hall                  Is?

                            No

Na‘am                     Yes

                           What

 M  Masculine, F  Feminine,  1 Singular                               

III  Third Person,   II   Second Person

 Ā    Alif,   ط  Ŧ,   ‘A   Ayn

                                                   

 

GRAMMATICAL THEMES

Nouns: Indefinite and Genders

Rule No. 1

With some exceptions generally, the final consonant of a noun, if it is indefinite carries a tanwin, nunation

i.e.        Kitābun             (M1)    A  Book

In this word Ba is the final consonant of a noun Kitāb and as it carries a tanwin of un, therefore it is indefinite.

Rule No. 2

Generally nouns ending in E or ł are feminine.

i.e.     Ghurfatun        (F1)     A Room, and as it carries a tanwin, therefore it is indefinite.

Rule No. 3

Parts of the human body, which are in pairs are also taken as feminine.

i.e.  ‘Aynun               (F1)       Eye

Rule No. 4

Some nouns do not end with E or ł but are still considered as feminine due to their usage.

i.e.   Samāun              (F1)       Sky               Shamsun          (F1)       Sun

Historically both nouns were originally used as feminine.   

 Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL



Replies:
Posted By: Hanan
Date Posted: 20 December 2006 at 9:33am

Hold fast to the rope of Allah, and be not divided



Posted By: Alwardah
Date Posted: 21 December 2006 at 11:09am

As Salamu Alaikum

Masha Allah nice thread

Jazakallahu Khairan sis

Salams



-------------
“Verily your Lord is quick in punishment; yet He is indeed Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful (Surah Al-An’am 6:165)
"Indeed, we belong to Allah and to Him is our return" (Surah Baqarah 2: 155)


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 27 December 2006 at 12:04pm

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

BarakAllah Fi, I am sure you must have heard that there are only two types of thirst in this world which can never be quenched, One is for pleasure of world and second is for knowledge. So alhamdulillah the more we learn, inshaAllah the closer it will take us to Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala.

Interrogation and personal pronouns

 

Rule No. 5

 

The particles, (What) and Mann (Who) are used for interrogation. is used for masculine and feminine inanimate nouns and Mann is used for masculine and feminine nouns, used for human beings.

 

 

Rule No. 6

 

Hazâ (This) is a singular masculine demonstrative pronoun for demonstration when the object for demonstration is very close.

 

 

Rule No. 7

 

Huwa (He) is the third person singular masculine personal pronoun.

 

Example Analysis: Rules 5-7

(i) If a masculine inanimate object Kitâbun (A Book) is identified as near by, the interrogation is raised with (What) and Hazâ (This), Mâ Hazâ? (what is this?). The answer for the interrogation is Hazâ Kitâbun (this is a book).

 

[Note: is in the above sentence is automatically understood. There is no special word in Arabic for is.

 

(ii) Mann Huwa (Who is he?)

As Mann (who) is a particle and is used for the interrogation of masculine and feminine nouns, used for human beings. Hence it is used with the masculine pronoun Huwa (he).

Mann (who) can also be used with Hazâ (This) for interrogation provided the object for demonstration is a human being singular and masculine. In both these interrogations if the object is a man then the answer will be Hazâ Rajulun (This is a man).

[Note: all nouns used in this part are masculine]

 

Rule No. 8

 

Hazihi (This) is a singular feminine demonstrative pronoun when the object is near/close.

 

Rule No. 9

 

Hiya (she) is the third person singular feminine personal pronoun.

 

Example Analysis: Rules 8-9

(i)                    If a feminine inanimate object Zahratun (a flower) is shown as nearby, the interrogation is raised with (What?). Mâ Hazihi (what is this?) and the answer is, Hazihi Zahratun (This is a flower).

(ii)                  Mann Hiya (Who is she?)

Hiya Bintun (She is a girl)

 

 

Rule No. 10

 

Âa / Hall (Is?) are the particles used for interrogation for masculine and feminine nouns. Both can be used interchangeably.

 

Example Analysis:

Âa Hazâ Kitâbun (Is this a book?)

If the answer is in the affirmative, Na‘am (Yes) is placed before the sentence.

Na‘am, Hazâ Kitâbun (Yes this is a book)

If the answer is in the negative, Lâ (No) is placed before the sentence.

Âa Hazâ Kitâbun (Is this a book?)

Lâ, Hazâ Qalamun (No, this is a pen).

 

Rule No. 11

 

Ânta (You) is used for the second person singular masculine pronoun and Ânti (You) for the second person feminine singular.

 

Rule No. 12

 

Ânâ ( I ) is used for both the singular masculine and feminine first person.

 

 Example Analysis: Rules 11-12

If the question is raised to a man: Mann Ânta (Who are you?), while for a woman, Mann Ânti.

The answer is Ânâ Rajulun/ Imraâtun (I am a man/woman)

 

The second person personal pronouns helps to develop conversation and dialogue.

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: Cyril
Date Posted: 31 December 2006 at 8:58am
Fatima

I am a little puzzled by your use of the "^" accent in transcription. I use it for long Arabic vowels (I have a French keyboard) as you do in the first half of your last post.

In the second part I see it on short vowels as in ânâ which should be ana (the second "a" is written long in Arabic but I heard it is pronounced short), or ânta which should be anta.
On the other hand hazâ should be hâzâ.


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 05 January 2007 at 4:18am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

JazakAllah khair for correcting me, I will have to tell you i am really bad at roman form of any language. I have arabic infront of me and i try to make it sound right but looks like there are going to be many times when i fail so please be kind enough to go through my posts in this thread and correct them whenever you can.

Thing was that i am told that when there is a fatha on or letter before alif then you make it more prominent, thats what i was trying to do on ana and anta. And i had a fatha on Ha in hâzâ instead of a long vowel in my notes so i went wrong there. Anyway in future i will try to be more careful inshaAllah.

wassalam

p.s. I might take few more days before putting the next part, bit short on time these days.



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 10 January 2007 at 4:19am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

I am trying something new this week seeing my poor attempt of writing Arabic in romanized format

Lesson 2

 

ح  Dh ذ  Ĥ  ص Th ث Ş ضĎ ظŻ HK خ

 

 

Jannatun / Hadiqatun         ﺠﻨﺔ/ﺤﺪﯿﻗ 5172;   (F1)         Garden

 

 

Ĥarrthun       ﺤﺮﺚ           (M1)                    Field

 

 

Fullkun                ﻔﻠﻚ       (F1)                     Ship

 

 

Huddan              ﻫﺪﻲ                           Guidance

 

 

Turābun             ﺘﺮاب     (M)                  Soil

 

 

Thaubun               ﺛﻮب    (M)                  Garment

 

 

Dunnya                 ﺪﻧﻴﺎ    (F)                    World

 

 

Dhahabun             ﺬﻫب   (M)                  Gold

 

 

Şirāŧun                    ﺻﺮﺍﻄ  (M1)              Road

 

 

Ďau’un                  ﻀﻮﺀ                           Light

 

 

Ŧ’āmun                 ﻃﻋﺎﻢ (M1)                    Food

 

 

Żullmatun                ﻅﻠﻤﺔ                      Darkness

 

 

Laylun                   ﻠﻳﻞ   (M1)                   Night

 

 

Nahārun                 ﻨﻫﺎﺮ      (F1)                    Day

 

 

Nārun                          ﻨﺎﺮ     (F)                      Fire

 

 

Thumma                ﺛﻢ                      Then

 

 

‘Ālimun                    ﻋﺎﻠﻢ      (M1)             Scholar

 

 

‘Ālimatun                  ﻋﺎﻠﻤﺔ     (F1)              Scholar

 

 

‘Alima                       ﻋﻠﻢ     (III M1)            To know

                                                                           He knew

 

 

‘Alimatt                   ﻋﻠﻤﺖ    (III F1)            She knew

 

 

‘Alimmta                  ﻋﻠﻤﺖ    (IIM1)           You knew

 

 

‘Alimmti                 ﻋﻠﻤﺖ     (II F1)           You knew

 

 

‘Alimmtu                  ﻋﻠﻤﺖ      (M1 + F1)        I knew

 

 

Jahila                      ﺠﻫﻞ      To remain ignorant

 

 

Şadaqa                  ﺻﺪﻖ       To speak truth

 

 

Kataba                    ﻛﺗﺐ       To write

 

 

Qaraā                      ﻘﺮﺃ      To read

 

 

Dakhala               ﺪﺨﻞ      To enter

 

 

Kharaja              ﺨﺮﺝ      To come out

 

 

Akala                    ﺃﻛﻞ       To eat

 

 

Jalasa                     ﺠﻠﺲ      To sit

 

 

Kadhaba               ﻛﺬﺐ     To speak lie

 

 

Dhahaba                  ﺬﻫﺐ      To go

 

 

Sami‘a                        ﺴﻤﻊ     To listen to

 

 

Ďa‘ufa                    ﻀﻌﻒ      Become weak

Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: amah
Date Posted: 10 January 2007 at 4:30am

Assalam Alaikum

My suggestion: use single "a" for fath-ha, double "aa" for madd alif, similarly "i" for kasrah and double"ee" for for madd yaa.....

..If its ok for you...jazakallahkhair

wassalaam



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Allah is Sufficient as a Walee (Protector) and Allah is Sufficient as a Naseer (Helper).
(Surah An-Nisa, Chapter #4, Verse #45)


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 31 January 2007 at 3:09am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaikum

GRAMMATICAL THEMES

 

The Sun and the Moon letters and definite Nouns

 

Rule No. 13

 

All twenty eight Arabic consonants are divided on phonetic ground into two equal groups. Fourteen are known as, The Moon Letters:

ا,ب ,ج ,ح ,خ ,ع ,غ ,ف ,ق ,ك ,م ,و ,ه ,ي 

These letters are named as moon letters because the noun اﻠﻘﻤﺮ (The Moon) provides a pattern for articulation for all such nouns.

The remaining fourteen are, The Sun Letters:

ت ,ث ,د , ذ ,ر ,ز ,س ,ش ,ص ,ض ,ط ,ظ ,ل ,ن

These letters are named as moon letters because the noun ﺍﻠﺸﻤس (The Moon) provides a pattern for articulation for all such nouns.

 

Rule No. 14

 

When the article “al” ﺍﻠ is placed at the beginning of an indefinite noun it makes it definite and the tanwîn, nunation confines it to a Ĥarakah, a short vowel.

 

Example Analysis:

ﺒﺎﺐ  bābun  (a door)      ﺍﻠﺒﺎﺐ Albābu (the door)

bābun is indefinite because the final consonant carries a tanwîn, when the article “al” ﺍﻠ  is placed at the beginning of the noun the tanwîn of the final consonant is confined to a Ĥarakah Ďammah, because it was carrying Ďammah tanwîn previously.

 

[Note when an indefinite noun is changed into a definite with the article “al” ﺍﻠ, the definite noun should never carry a tanwîn.

 

Rule No. 15

 

When an indefinite noun begins with one of the Moon letters and is changed into definite noun by placing “al” ﺍﻠ at the befinning, the lām of “al” ﺍﻠ should be recited.

ﺍﻠﺒﺎﺐ Albābu (the door)

 

Rule No. 16

 

When an indefinite noun begins with one of the Sun letters and is changed into a definite noun by placing “al” ﺍﻠ at the beginning, the lām of “al” should be assimilated with the Sun letter.

With the Shaddah on the first Sun letter, Şirāŧun into AŞŞirāŧ

 

Rule No. 17

 

ذﻠﻚ  Dhalika (that) [M1] is a singular masculine demonstrative pronoun and ﺘﻠﻚ Tillka (that) [F1] is a singular feminine demonstrative pronoun. Both are used when the object is for demonstration is far away.

Dhalika Thaubun (That is a cloth.)

Tillka Ghurfatun  (That is a room.)

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 02 February 2007 at 4:08am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

 

Assalamu alaikum

 

The Verb: Perfect

 

Verbs in Arabic are mostly trilateral (containing three radical letters) but there are a few quadrilateral (containing four radical letters) verbs.  They include two tenses: the perfect and the imperfect. The English past tense and the present perfect tense correspond to the Arabic Perfect.

 

Arabic grammarians use the verb ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ala (he did), the third person singular masculine IIIM1, as a root and also as an example pattern. This pattern is frequently used in this work. It is therefore, necessary to understand it.

 

The initial radical letter in ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ala is Fa, the medial is ‘Ayn and the third radical letter is Lam. The medial radical ‘Ayn in a trilateral Perfect verb may carry Fathahَ   , Kasrah ِ  , or dammah ُ  but the radical Fa and lam only carry fathah in all roots. The following three verbs give ezamples of the three possibilies for the radical ‘Ayn.

 

(1)       ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ala              ﻛﺘﺐ  Kataba

The radial Kaf stands for Fa, the radical Ta stands for the medial radical ‘Ayn and Ba stands for the third radical Lam.

ﻛﺘﺐ  Kataba (he wrote) is the third person singular masculine.

 

(2)       ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ila                ﺠﻫﻞ  Jahila

The radial Jīm stands for Fa, the radical Ha stands for the medial radical ‘Ayn which carries Kasrah ِ   and Lam stands for the third radical Lam.

ﺠﻫﻞ  Jahila (He remained ignorant) is the third person singular masculine.

 

(3)     ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ula             ﻀﻌﻒ    Ďa‘ufa                 

 The radial Ďa stands for Fa, the radical ‘Ayn stands for the medial radical ‘Ayn which carries dammah ُ  and Fa stands for the third radical Lam.

ﻀﻌﻒ    Ďa‘ufa   (He became weak) is the third person singular masculine.

 

[Note the radical ‘Ayn in ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ala, root carries fathah only. The remaining two vowels kasrah and dammah are deliberately placed for the sake of example so that it can be used as a pattern for all such roots in which radical ‘Ayn carries either kasrah or dammah.

 

Just as with the English language, Arabic verbs are either transitive (requiring a direct object to complete the sense) or intransitive (which does not take a direct object) and a few are both transitive and intransitive depending on their use.

 

(1)   The pattern  ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ala generally retains the transitive character as in ﻛﺘﺐ  Kataba, but there are few roots which although they share the same pattern retain their intransitive nature such as ﺠﻠﺲ  Jalasa (he sat).

(2)   The pattern ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ila generally gives intransitive significance indicating a transient state, action or quality either in a person or in a thing as in ﺠﻫﻞ  Jahila (He remained ignorant).

(3)   The Pattern ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ula is intransitive in its character and indicates a permanent state or inherent quality as in ﻀﻌﻒ    Ďa‘ufa   (He became weak).

(4)   Certain verbs depending on their use are either transitive or intransitive as ﺴﻤﻊ    Sami‘a.

 

Rule No. 18

 

If the subject is third person masculine singular the verb ends with Fathah.

 

Example Analysis:

Musa ‘Alima (Musa Knew), in this example Musa is  third person masculine singular so the verb Alima ends with a kasrah on Mim.

 

Rule No. 19

 

If the subject is third person feminine singular, ت is added to verb with a sukun having a kasrah on the last radical of the verb.

 

Example Analysis:

Maryamu ‘Alimatt (Maryam Knew), Maryamu is third person singular feminine and she is the subject of the verb ‘Alimatt.

 

[Note the particle Thumma ﺛﻢ  Then, is employed for connection. It connects two actions with some duration of time. It also signifies garadation]

Huwa Dakhala Thumma Kharaja (He entered, then he came out.)

 

Wassalam



-------------
Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: Alwardah
Date Posted: 05 February 2007 at 8:57am

As Salamu alaikum

Masha Allah this thread is very useful now that you are including the Arabic Text

Jazakallahu Khairan May Allah reward you for your efforts. Ameen

Salams



-------------
“Verily your Lord is quick in punishment; yet He is indeed Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful (Surah Al-An’am 6:165)
"Indeed, we belong to Allah and to Him is our return" (Surah Baqarah 2: 155)


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 14 March 2007 at 5:29am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Wa'alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahe wa barakatuhu

JazakAllah khair sis, please guide me in improving the ways, i am always up for the new ways inshaAllah. Sorry for this long delay but i was off for few weeks, pray that Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala gives me ability to continue.

 

Rule No. 20

 

If a particle, a noun or a verb ends with a quiescent consonant and the following word begins with a hamzat al-wasl [ اْ ], the connecting hamzah then kasrah is added to the quiescent consonant enabling it to join with the following word.

 

Example Analysis:

The verb ﺠﻫﻠت ends with the quiescent ( تْ ) because its subject is ْاﻷﻢ. this quiescent ( تْ )  joins with اﻷﻢ which begins with hamzat al-wasl, the connective hamzah. A kasrah is added to the quiescsecnt ( تْ ) enabling it to join with the lām of اﻷﻢ.

 

[Note this kasrah can be called kasrah of convenience which provides convenience when two words are connected with each other in the articulation. The verb usually precedes the subject.  Such verbal sentence needs no subject pronoun.]

 

؟ ﻀﻌﻔﺖ اﻠﺒﻨﺖ ﻫﻞ        Halil bintu Ďa‘ufatt.

The particle ﻫﻞ ends with the quiescent ( ﻞْ ) and the next word اﻠﺒﻨﺖ begins with hamzat al-wasl, the connecting hamzah.  A kasrah is added to the consonant lām enabling it to join with the lām of اﻠﺒﻨﺖ.

 

Rule No. 21

 

If the subject is second person masculine singular the verb ends in ( َ ) keeping its radical letter lām quiescent.

 

Example Analysis:

؟ ﻜﺗﺒﺖ ﺃﻨﺖ    [Āa Anta katabta] (Did you write?)

The subject of the verb ﻜﺗﺒﺖ katabta) is (ﺃﻨﺖAnta) which is second person masculine singular.  Therefore, it ends with the ( ﺖَ ). The radical letter lām in this verb is Bā therefore it is kept quiescent.

 

Rule No. 22

 

If the subject is second person feminine singular, the verb ends in ( ﺖِ ) keeping its radical letter lām quiescent.

 

Example Analysis:

؟ ﺴﻤﻌﺖ ﺃﻨﺖ ﻫﻞ  (Hal Anti Sami’ti) Did you listen?

The subject of the verb ﺴﻤﻌﺖ Sami’ti is (ﺃﻨﺖAnti) which is second person feminine singular. Therefore, it ends in (ﺖِ ).  The radical letter lām in this verb is ‘a’ therefore it remains quiescent.

 

Rule No. 23

 

If the subject is first person singular masculine and feminine, the verb ends with ﺖُ keeping its radical letter lām quiescent.

 

Example Analysis:

؟ ﻜﺗﺒﺖ ﺃﻨا  (Ana katabtu) I wrote.

The subject of the verb ﻜﺗﺒﺖ katabtu is ﺃﻨا Ana which is first person singular masculine and feminine. Therefore, it ends with (ﺖُ). The radical letter lām in this verb is Bā, therefore it remains quiescent.

 

Rule No. 24

 

Active Participle

The active participle describes the doer of the action of verbs. It may function as a noun or an adjective.

The method of forming an active participle is as follows:

  1. Add Alif after the radical letter Fā’.
  2. Place kasrah under the radical letter ‘Ayn.
  3. As active participle is a noun the radical letter lām in case of indefiniteness shall carry a tanwin and if definite it shall carry a Ĥarakah short vowel.

 

ﻓﻋﻞ fa’ala               ﻞٌ ﻋِ ا ﻔَ   ﻔاﻋﻞ Fā’ilun  (doing/doer)

ﻛﺘﺐ  Kataba           ﺐٌ ﺘِ ا ﻜَ   ﻜاﺘﺐ Kātibun (writing/writer)

ﺴﻤﻊ    Sami‘a         ﻉٌ ﻣِ ا ﺴَ   ﺴاﻣﻊ Sāmi’un (listening/listener)

 

For feminine ة / added to the radical letter lām, which then takes fatĥah.

ﻔاﻋﻞ Fā’ilun       ﻔاﻋﻠﺔ  Fā’ilatun.

ﻜاﺘﺐ Kātibun      ﻛاﺘﺑﺔ   Kātibatun

ﺴاﻣﻊ Sāmi’un      ﺴاﻣﻌﺔ  Sāmi’atun

 

The active participle is also found on the pattern of ﻔﻌﻳﻞ Fa’īlun. Generally this position is used for adjectives and attributes of Allah subhanahu wa ta’ala.

ﺴﻤﻊ    Sami‘a     ﺴﻣﻳﻊ  Sami’un (Hearing)

 

Note when the radical letter Fā of a verb carries đammah ﻓﻋﻞ Fa’ula, the active participle can be formed only on the pattern of ﻔﻌﻳﻞ Fa’īlun.

 

Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: Alwardah
Date Posted: 14 March 2007 at 9:42am

As Salamu Alaikum

Alhamdulillah you are resuming the thread.

I can't help much as I battled to learn Arabic and am still learning from here and other books.

However, while learning the Qur'anic Arabic, I did not pay much attention to Grammar or syntax.

Masha Allah you are doing a great job.

May Allah reward you for your efforts Ameen

Salams



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“Verily your Lord is quick in punishment; yet He is indeed Oft-Forgiving Most Merciful (Surah Al-An’am 6:165)
"Indeed, we belong to Allah and to Him is our return" (Surah Baqarah 2: 155)


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 22 March 2007 at 5:33am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaykum

Lesson 3

 

ﺮﺐﱞ  (Rabbun)  Nourisher, Cherisher, Sustainer, Lord

 

ﻤﻠﻚ  (Mulkun)  ( M1 )  Kingdom

 

ﺃﺮﺾ  (Arđun)  ( F1 )  Earth

 

ﻤﺴﺠﺩ  (Masjidun)  ( M1 ) Mosque

 

ﺻﻼﺓ  (Şalātun)  ( F1 )  Prayer

 

ﺨﻴﺮ  (Khayrun)  Virtue, good

 

ﺸﺮ  (Sharrun)  Evil, vice

 

ﺸﻴﻂﺎﻥ  (Shaytānun)  ( M1 ) Satan

 

ﺒﻴﺖ  (Baytun)  ( M ) House

 

ﻤﺩﺮﺴﺔ  (Madrasatun)  ( F1 )  School

 

ﺒﺤﺮ  (Baĥrun)  ( M1 )  Sea

 

ﻴﺎ  (Ya/Yā)  ( M+ F ) O!

 

ﺃﻴﻫﺎ  (Ayyuha)  ( M )  O!

 

ﺃﻴﺘﻫﺎ  (ayyatuha)  ( F )   O!

 

ﺨﻠﻖ  (Khalaqa)  To create

 

ﻨﺰﻞ  (Nazala)  To descend

 

ﻜﻔﺮ  (Kafara)  To reject, to disbelieve

 

ﺸﺮﺐ  (Shariba)  To drink

 

ﻔﻫﻢ  (Fahima)  To understand

 

ﺮﺠﻊ  (Raja’a)  To return

 

ﻤﻦ  (Minn)  From

 

ﺇﻠﻰ  (Ila)  To

 

ِ  (Bi)  With

 

ﻠِ  (Li)  For

 

ﻋﻠﻰ  (‘Alay)  On

 

ﻔﻲ  (Fi)  In

 

ﺘﻮﺮﺍﺓ  (Taorātun/Taorāh)  Torah

 

ﺇﻨﺠﻴﻞ  (Injīlun)  Gospel

 

ﺰﺒﻮﺮ  (Zaburun)  Psalm

 

ﺃﻴﻦ  (Ayna)  Where

 

 

Genitive Case

 

Rule No. 25

 

Seventeen particles are used in the Arabic as prepositions. If one of them appears before noun, it changes the noun into genitive case. In the genitive case, nouns accept either kasrah or kasrah tanwin depending on whether they are definite or indefinite.

 

Example Analysis:

In the glossary the words ﻋﻠﻰ  (‘Alay) to ﻤﻦ  (Minn) are prepositions and when they occur before a noun, the noun becomes genitive.

ﺍﻠﻐﺮﻔﺔ ﻔﻲ ﻫﻮ  Huwa fil ghurfati  (He is in the room.)

The preposition ﻔﻲ  (Fi) appears before the noun ﺍﻠﻐﺮﻔﺔ alghurfati and is one of the particles which requires the genitive case. Therefore, Ta of ﺍﻠﻐﺮﻔﺔ alghurfati carries kasrah without tanwin because the noun is definite.

 

ﻤﺴﺠﺩ ﺇﻠﻰ ﺒﻴﺖ ﻤﻦ  Minn baytin ila masjidin  (From a house to a mosque)

ﻤﻦ (from) and ﺇﻠﻰ (to) are prepositions and requires the genitive particles appear before the nouns ﺒﻴﺖ baytin and ﻤﺴﺠﺩ masjidin respectively. As both these nouns are indefinite, their final consonants, therefore, carry kasrah tanwin.

 

Interjection/ Vocative particles ﻴﺎ  (Ya/Yā)  ( M+ F ) O!

 

ﺃﻴﻫﺎ  (Ayyuha)  ( M )  O!   ﺃﻴﺘﻫﺎ  (ayyatuha)  ( F )   O!

In their daily conversation Arabs use interjection particles for inviting the attention of person/s.

 

Rule No. 26

 

The particle for interjection ﻴﺎ  (Ya/Yā)  ( M+ F ) O! cannot be followed by a noun with a definite article ﺃﻠ (al). This particle can also be used for both genders.

 

Example Analysis:

؟ ﻫذﻩ ﻤﺎ  ! ﻮﻠﺪ ﻴﺎ Ya waladu! Ma Hādhihi  (O boy! What is this ( F1 ) ?)

The particle for interjection ﻴﺎ Ya is followed by the noun ﻮﻠﺪ waladu. Although the definite article ﺃﻠ (al) is not applied after Ya, the noun is construed as definite because the speaker is addressing a specific person, therefore, it is written without tanwin.

 

Rule No. 27

 

The particles for interjection ﺃﻴﻫﺎ (Ayyuha) ( M ) O!,  ﺃﻴﺘﻫﺎ (ayyatuha) ( F ) O! are always followed by nouns with the definite article ﺃﻠ (al).

 

Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 27 March 2007 at 5:15am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaykum

The combination of interrogative particles:

 

The interrogative particles from lesson 1 are combined with the prepositions in this lesson and one more interrogative particle ﺃﻴﻦ Ayna (where?) is added.

In Arabic some interrogative particles can be combined with propositions.

  1. ﺒﻢ  Bima (with what?)
  2. ﻤﻢ  Mimma (from what?)
  3. ﻤﻤﻦ  Mimman (from whom?)
  4. ﻔﻴﻢ  Fima (in what?)
  5. ﻠﻤﻦ  Liman (for whom? To whom, whose?
  6. ﻠﻢ  Lima (For what? Why?
  7. ﻋﻠﺎﻢ  ‘Alāma (on what?)
  8. ﺃﻴﻦ ﻤﻦ  Minn Ayna (from where?)

 

Rule No. 28

 

If an interrogative particle is combined with a preposition, the preposition will not have any genitive effect on the interrogative particle because interrogative particles are indeclinable.

 

Example Analysis:

In example no 5 ﻠﻤﻦ Liman, the preposition Li is combined with mann. The final consonant will remain sākin quiescent unless there is a need to join it with another noun which begins with Hamat al-wasl, the connecting Hamzah (see Rule No 20).

ﺍﻠﻤﻠﻚ ﻠﻤﻦ Limanil mulku? Here Mann carries kasrah because it is combined with Mulku, where as in case of ﺍﻠﺤﺮﺚ ﻫﺫ ﻠﻤﻦ liman Hāzal ĥarrthu, it retains its sākin quiescent form.

 

Pronoun Suffix

 

The following are the singular pronoun suffixes:

ُ Hu (IIIM1)                   ﻫﺎ Hā (IIIF1)

َ Ka (IIM1)                    ﻚِ  Ki (IIF1)

ﻨﻲ/ِ Nī/Yi (IM1 + F1)

 

Rule No. 29

 

Pronoun suffixes can be combined with prepositions. When these are combined they give the meaning of both the pronoun suffixes and the prepositions employed.

 

Example No. 1

ﻤﻦ Minn (From) + Hu (him)  =  ﻤﻨﻪ  Minhu, from him

ﻤﻦ Minn (From) + ﻫﺎ Hā (her)  =  ﻤﻨﻫﺎ Minhā, from her

ﻤﻦ Minn (From) + Ka (you M1) = ﻤﻨﻚ Minka, from you

ﻤﻦ Minn (From) + ﻚِ  Ki (you F1) = ﻤﻨﻚ Minki, from you

ﻤﻦ Minn (From) + ﻨﻲ/ِ Nī/Yi (me M1 + F1) = ﻤﻨﻲ minnī, from me

 

ﺇﻠﻰ  (Ilay)  + Hu, on phonetical grounds Hu turns into Hi  = ﺍﻠﻴﻪ ilayhi and

 ﺇﻠﻰ  (Ilay)  + Yi = ﺇﻠﻲﱠ illahha.

Same applies to ﻋﻠﻰ  (‘Alay)  On and ﻔﻲ  (Fi)  In.

 

Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 04 April 2007 at 4:42am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaykum

Lesson 4

 

 ﺛﻮﺍﺐ  (thawābun) Reward

 

ﻋﺬﺍﺐ  (‘Adhabun) Punishment

 

ﺍﻠﺠﻨﺔ  (Aljannatu) Paradise

 

ﺍﻠﻨﺎﺮ  (Annāru) Hell

 

ﺍﻠﻪ  (Ilāhun) ( M1 )  God

 

ﺴﻮﺮﺓ  (Suratun) ( F1 )Chapter of the Qur’ān

 

ﻋﺒﺪ  (‘Abdun) ( M1 )  Slave, servant

 

ﺤﺎﻞ  (Ĥālun) ( M1 )  Condition

 

ﺍﺴﻢ  (Issmun) ( M1 )  Name

 

ﺃﺨﺖ  (Ukhtun) ( F1 )  Sister

 

ﻤﻊ  (Ma’a) At, near, with, by, on (of place time and possession), upon, in the opinion of

 

ﻜﻴﻒ  (Kayfa) How

 

ﻜﻞ  (Kullu) All, each, every

 

ﺤﻤﺪ  (Ĥamida) To praise

 

ﺤﻤﺪ  (Ĥamdun) Praise

 

ﻫﻠﻚ  (Halaka) To perish

 

ﻫﺎﻠﻚ  (hālikun) Perishing

 

ﺨﻠﻖ  (Khalaqa) To create

 

ﺨﺎﻠﻖ  (Khāliqun) Creator

 

ﻘﺎﻞ  (Qāla) To say

 

ﺼﺎﻢ  (Şāma) To fast

 

ﻜﺎﻥ  (Kāna) To be

 

ﻘﺎﻢ  (Qāma) To stand

 

ﻧﺎﻢ  (Nāma) To sleep

 

ﺠﺎﺀ  (Jāa) To come

 

ﻋﻨﺪ  (‘Inda) With, together with, accompanied by, in company of

 

ﺿﻴﺎﺀ  (Điyāun) Light

 

ﺸﻲﺀ  (Shayun) Thing

 

ﺍﻠﺮﺤﻤﻦ  (Arraĥmānu) The Mercifull

 

Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: fatima
Date Posted: 11 April 2007 at 6:19am

Bismillah irrahman irrahim

Assalamu alaykum

The construct phrase (aliđāfatu)

 

Rule No. 30

 

Iđāfah consists of two nouns of any gender which are combined together in a phrase indicating their close relationship and generally imparting the meaning of possession.  The first noun of the construct phrase (muđāf) provides the meaning of ‘being possessed’ and the second noun (muđāf ilayh) denotes the ‘possessor’.

 

(A)           The second noun ‘the possessor’:

·        Always remains in genitive case.

·        It can remain either definite or indefinite.

·        It can be a pronoun suffix.

 

(B)           The first noun ‘being possessed’:

·        Always appears as indefinite with a ĥarakah, short vowel.

·        Depending on its case it can remain in nominative, accusative or genitive form.

·        It agrees in meaning in both cases of definiteness and indefiniteness of the second noun.

 

(1)           ﺍﷲ ﻜﺘﺎﺐ (Kitābullahi) The Book of Allah. / Allah’s Book

Both nouns ﻜﺘﺎﺐKitābu and ﺍﷲ Allahi are closely related with each other and this construction forms a phrase. The first noun ﻜﺘﺎﺐ is written and pronounced as indefinite with a đammah ُ ĥarakah because it is in the nominative case but it gives the definite meaning for its close relationship with the second noun of the phras ﺍﷲ. The second noun is definite and it is in the genitive case (carrying kasrahِ).

ﺍﷲ ﻜﺘﺎﺐ ﺍﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ (AlQur’ānu Kitābullahi) The Qur’ān is the book of Allah. ﺍﻠﻘﺮﺁﻥ is subject and is ﺍﷲ ﻜﺘﺎﺐ predicate.

ﺒﻠﺪ ﻋﺎﻠﻢ (‘Ālimu baladin) A scholar of a town, the second noun is indefinite. It is in the genitive case carrying kasrah tanwīn. Because of this the first noun is also indefinite, it is an active participle and is in the nominative case.

ﻛﺘﺎﺒﻪ (Kitābuhu) His book, Kitābu is the first noun and Hu the pronoun suffix stands for the second noun and is free from any genitive effect. In construct phrase pronoun suffix becomes possessive pronoun.

 

ﺍﷲ ﺒﺎﺴﻢ ﻛﺘﺒﺕ (katabtu Bismillahi) I wrote in the name of Allah. Here ﻛﺘﺒﺕ katabtu is the subject and ﺍﷲ ﺒﺎﺴﻢ Bismillahi (in the name of Allah) is the predicate. This predicate is comprised of a construct phrase ﺍﷲ ﺎﺴﻢ (the name of Allah), which is preceded by a preposition Bi (in / with). The second noun of the construct phrase ﺍﷲ is definite and it is in the genitive case (carrying kasrah). The first noun Ismu gives definite meaning, and is in the genitive case (carrying kasrah) because it is preceded by a preposition Bi (in / with).

 

Rule No. 31

 

If the first noun of a construct phrase is preceded by an interjection / vocative particle ﻴﺎ Yā then its case will be changed into the accusative (carrying a ĥarakah faĥah). The second noun always remains in the genitive case.

 

Example Analysis:

؟ ﺤﺎﻠﻚ ﻛﻴﻒ  ﺍﷲ!  ﻋﺒﺪ ﻴﺎ (Yā ‘AbdAllah! Kayfa ĥāluka?) O! servant of Allah how are you? ﺍﷲ  ﻋﺒﺪ ‘AbdAllah is a construct phrase and the first noun ‘Abda is preceded by yā, a vocative, therefore it carries fatĥah. It is therefore in the accusative and carries fatĥah.

 

Rule No. 32

 

A few nouns in Arabic including ﺃﺐ Abun, ﺃﺥ Akhun on phonological grounds receive special treatment when any possessive pronoun is attached to them.

  • In the nominative case Wāw, is added between the noun and the possessive pronoun.
  • In the genitive case Ya, is added between the noun and the pronoun suffix.
  • In the accusative case Alif, is added between the noun and the possessive pronoun.

 

Example Analysis:

ﺃﺧﻭﻩ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺃﺒﻭﻩ ﻫﺫﺍ (Hāza Abuhu wa Hāza Akhuhu) This is his father and this is his brother. ﺃﺐ Abun, ﺃﺥ Akhun are in nominative case, therefore Wāw is added between them and the pronoun suffix Hu.

ﻷﺨﻳﻪ ﺍﻠﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﻷﺑﻳﻪ ﺍﻠﻛﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﺫﺍ (Hāzal kitābu liabihi wahāzal kitābu liakhihi) This book is for his father and this book is for his brother. In this sentence ﺃﺐ Abun, ﺃﺥ Akhun is preceded by the preposition Li (for), therefore they are in the genitive case. Ya is added between them and the possessive pronoun Hi.

 

ﻤﻊ M’ā (with, together with / and ﻋﻨﺪ ‘inda at, with) are prepositions which change the nouns into the genitive case.

ﺍﻠﻮﻠﺪ ﻋﻨﺪ ﺍﻠﻛﺗﺎﺏ ﻨﻠﻚ  (Dhalikal kitābu ‘indal waladi) That book is with the boy. The noun ﺍﻠﻮﻠﺪ alwaladu is preceded by the preposition ﻋﻨﺪ ‘inda at, with, therefore it is in the genitive case and carries a kasrah.

 

Wassalam



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Say: (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, MercifuL


Posted By: Serik
Date Posted: 23 July 2007 at 7:14am

Assolayam ualeikum ua rahmatullahi!

Bros and sis,I have a strong desire to learn reading quran,starting from alphabet,can you advice some softwares for it?

 

Jezaku Allahu Hayran



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Aghuzubillahi min ash shaitani rodjim


Posted By: minuteman
Date Posted: 22 November 2007 at 9:16am

 

 I have checked the lessons from Fatima. They are excellent. I wish there was some easy way of speaking arabic language, the colloquel way. Is there an easy way to learn to speak Arabic as in daily use, common language??? Thanks.



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If any one is bad some one must suffer


Posted By: Guests
Date Posted: 30 December 2007 at 10:15am



Posted By: Skr_of_knwldg
Date Posted: 28 July 2008 at 9:24pm
Assalmau alaikum,

May Allah Reward you Sister!!!

I hope you dont mind, I have copied all the recent post into a Word file to check for it frequently inshaAllah.

Thanks again,

Jazak Allahu Khayran,
Masalama



Posted By: BluePinkBlue
Date Posted: 12 February 2009 at 5:41pm
Thankyou Hanan your words are good.

-------------


           BluePinkBlue


Posted By: Caringheart
Date Posted: 07 September 2012 at 4:55pm
Greetings,
I am not wanting, or trying, to hijack this thread, but if there is an Arabic scholar here, I am hoping you can direct me to a good english translation of the Qur'an.  I do not want any slanted translation... no pro-Islamic, nor anti-Islamic, but one with good literal translation.
You can private message me an answer if you can help so I do not interfere with the thread.
Much appreciation and thanks if you can help.  Smile


Posted By: alfirdousacadmy
Date Posted: 19 January 2013 at 11:20pm
slamo alykom


mashallah very good


Posted By: abellong
Date Posted: 23 July 2013 at 7:42pm
Thank you


Posted By: Abu Dujana
Date Posted: 26 March 2015 at 4:54am

  Learn Arabic (Youtube)

http://https://www.youtube.com/user/LearnArabic1000 -



Posted By: AnnieThomas
Date Posted: 09 April 2015 at 4:26am
Jazkallah khair



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