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the last Caliph

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midway View Drop Down
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    Posted: 19 June 2005 at 1:48pm

 

Assalaamu alaikum

 

 

I have heard a lot said about the initial Caliphs in Islam, I was wondering if anyone here knows what the situation was like under the last Caliph to rule?

 

Did all the factions of Islam agree to his leadership?

 

Or were those factions choosing different Caliphs from the time splits first started to emerge? 

 

 

Thanks  

 

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Ali Zaki Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 June 2005 at 9:18am

Hello Midway,

Quick answer; Shia never accepted anyone as Imam (Caliph) other than the 12. The first Imam (a.s.) was Ali ibn Abu Talib (a.s.), who was nominated by the Prophet (a.s.) himself. The rest were nominated by their predecesors. Shia do not accept that the leadership of the Muslim Umma can be decided by Shura (election), as the Prophet (a.s.) never endorsed this practice (as a means of deciding on this matter).

For more info on Shia beliefs regarding Imammate (Leadership), see:

http://al-islam.org/leadership/ (General Concept of Islamic Leadership and Immate)

http://al-islam.org/imamate/ (Difference between Shia and Sunni viewpoint on the issue of Caiphate/Imamate).

http://al-islam.org/mastership/ (Grades and positions of Leadership (Wilayate) according to Quran and Hadith).

"The structure of faith is supported by four pillars endurance, conviction, justice and jihad."

Imam Ali (a.s.)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote midway Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 20 June 2005 at 5:00pm

 

Assalaamu alaikum

 

 

Dear brother Ali Zaki,

 

I wanted to know if the factions within Islam agreed to all the Caliphs after Imam Ali {AS}, to the most recent Caliph?

 

 

Kind regards

nadir

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Ali Zaki Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 21 June 2005 at 6:42am

Alakum Salam Midway,

That's an interesting question. My previous understading was that the majority of the Muslims (Sunni) did accept the authority of all of the Caliphs (even after the four) until the fall of the Ottoman Empire in WWI. My understading was that their belief was that as long as the Caliph "kept up prayer", and was a Muslim then his authority was recognized by the Sunni's.

I must say, however, that I have found that there is a wide degree of disagreement among individual Sunni's on this point. I had previously assumed that one would have to ignore the obvious injustices practiced by these rulers to obey them, however, I have found that many Sunni brothers do acknowledge that (many of them) were indeed unjust. However (as far as I know), the Shia were the only group that clearly and activily opposed the unjust Caliphs.

I have heard two justifications (by our Sunni brothers/sisters) for this recognition;

First, they interpret "those vested with authority among you (Ul al'Amr) in the Holy Quran (5:54-55) to mean any Muslim ruler that "believes, establishs prayers and pays zakat" (which is contrary to the Shia tafseer for this verse, as Shia believe based on Hadith that this verse applies to a single person (and those like this person), namely, Imam Ali (a.s.))

Secondly, they believe that submitting to a ruler (even an unjust one), as long as he "believes, prays and pays zakat" is better than Fitna and anarchy. They also base this on hadith.

As for the other, smaller sects (such as Sufi's), most agree with the Sunni position on this. There are other, even smaller sects (like Zayidi's, etc.) who agree with the Shia on this point.

Salam

"The structure of faith is supported by four pillars endurance, conviction, justice and jihad."

Imam Ali (a.s.)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote aservant Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 29 June 2005 at 10:50am
Originally posted by Ali Zaki Ali Zaki wrote:

The first Imam (a.s.) was Ali ibn Abu Talib (a.s.), who was nominated by the Prophet (a.s.) himself.

dear Ali Zaki

could you please tell me that when, where and how prophet peace be upon him himself appointed Ali (ra) as the first caliph?

a well wisher

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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Ayubi1187 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30 June 2005 at 6:12am
Originally posted by aservant aservant wrote:

Originally posted by Ali Zaki Ali Zaki wrote:


The first Imam (a.s.) was Ali ibn Abu Talib (a.s.), who was nominated by the Prophet (a.s.) himself.



dear Ali Zaki


could you please tell me that when, where and how prophet peace be upon him himself appointed Ali (ra) as the first caliph?


a well wisher



Good question im interested too about this event because i and more then 1.2billion muslims never heard that the Prophet(saw) appointed someone as the first caliph.
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Ali Zaki Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30 June 2005 at 6:17am

 Salam alakum Brother,

Here is the short answer. More can be given upon request.

The First Time

" When the verse: "And warn thy nearest relations (26:214), was revealed, the Prophet ordered 'Ali to prepare food and invite the sons of 'Abdu'l-Muttalib so that he could convey to them the words of Allah. After the feast, the Prophet intended to talk to them, but Abu Lahab interfered by saying:"Verily, your comrade has entranced you". Upon hearing this statement all of them dispersed.

The next day, the Messenger of Allah again called them for a feast. After they had finished with their food, the Prophet addressed them: "O sons of 'Abdul'l-Muttalib, I have brought for you the good of this world and the next, and I have been appointed by the Lord to call you unto Him. Therefore, who amongst you will administer this cause for me and be my brother, my successor and my caliph?" No one responded to the Prophet' s call except 'Ali who was the youngest of the congregation. The Prophet then patted 'Ali's neck and said: "O my people! This 'A1i is my brother, my successor and my caliph amongst you. Listen to him and obey him.''

Ibnu 'l-Athir: al-Kamil, [vol.5, pp. 62-3]; al Baghawi: at-Tafsir, [vol. 4, p.127]; al-Khazin: at-Tafsir, [vol. 4, p. 127]; al-Bayhaqi: Dala 'ilu 'n-nubuwwah [vol. I, pp.428-30]; as-Suyuti: ad-Durru 'l-manthur [vol.5, p.97]; al-Muttaqi al-Hindi: Kanzu 'l-'ummal [vol.15, pp .100,113,115-7]; Abu 'l -Fida': al -Mukhtasar, [vol. I, pp .116-7]; at -Tabari: at Tarikh, [vol. I pp .171-3]; Carlyle , T.: On Heroes, Hero Worship and the Heroic in History, [p.54]; Gibbon, E.: The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, [vol. 3, p. 94]; Davenport, J.: An Apology for Muhammed and the Koran [ p.21 ]; Irving, W.: Mahommet and His Successors [p.45]. (For further details, see al-Amini: al-Ghadir [ vol. 2, pp.278 89] . )

The Second Time

"Verily, your guardian (wali) is Allah, His messenger, and the believers - those who perform the prayers and give zakat (alms) while bowing down (in ruku')."(5:55)

" Abu Dharr al-Ghifari says that one day he was praying with the Prophet when a beggar came to the Prophet's mosque. No one responded to his pleas. The beggar raised his hands towards heavens and said, "Allah! be a witness that I came to Thy Prophet's mosque and no one gave me anything". 'Ali (as) was bowing in ruku' at that time. He pointed his little finger, on which was a ring, towards the beggar who came forward and took away the ring. This incident occurred in the Prophet's presence who raised his face towards heaven and prayed: "O Lord! my brother Musa had begged of Thee to open his breast and to make his work easy for him, to loose the knot of his tongue so that people might understand him, and to appoint from among his relations his brother, as his vizier, and to strengthen his back with Harun and to make Harun his partner in his work. O Allah! Thou said to Musa, 'We will strengthen thy arm with thy brother. No one will now have an access to either of you!' O Allah! I am Muhammad and Thou hast given me distinction. Open my breast for me, make my work easy for me, and from my family appoint my brother 'Ali as my vizier. Strengthen my back with him". The Prophet had not yet finished his prayers when Jibril brought the above quoted verse.  "

See [at-Tabari; at-Tafsir, vol. 6, p. 186]; as-Suyuti: ad-Durru 'l-manthur, [vol. 2,,, pp. 293-4]; ar-Razi: at-Tafsiru 'l-kabir, [vol.12, p. 26]; az-Zamakhshari: at-Tafsir (al-Kashshaf), vol.l, p.649; [al-Jassas: Ahkamu 'l-Qur'an, vol. 2, pp.542-3; al-Khazin: at-Tafsir, vol. 2, p. 68]

The Third Time

Ghadir Khumm lies in Juhfa between Mecca and Medina, however, some Shia scholars now believe that the place may not refer to this specific geographic location. The general area is the desert area between Mecca and Medina. When the Prophet was on his way home, after performing his last pilgrimage, Jibril brought him this urgent command of Allah:

O Apostle! deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people . . . (5 :67)

The Prophet stopped at once and ordered that all people who had gone ahead should be called back, and he waited for those who were following. When all the caravan had gathered, a pulpit was set up by piling up camel saddles; the acacia thorns were swept away. The Prophet ascended the pulpit and delivered a long sermon. The day was very hot; people had to stretch their cloaks under their feet and over their heads. The Prophet addressed them as follows: O you people! Know it well that Jibril came down to me several times bringing me orders from the Lord, the Merciful, that I should halt at this place and inform every man, white and black, that 'Ali, the son of Abu Talib, is my brother and my wasiyy (successor) and my caliph, and the Imam after me. His position to me is like that of Harun to Musa, except that there is to be no prophet after me, and he is your master next to Allah and His Prophet. "

ALSO:

The Messenger of Allah said to Ali: "Your position to me is like the
     position of Aaron (Haroon) to Moses, except that there shall be no
     Prophet after me"
                                    |     : |. .         .      .. .  |
        _w q_o    . _o    .  q   |_8   4_| _,_o_,     _,_o  ,__,_, |
     (_S   /     (_)     (_) / /          /    .   (_S

                                                    .   | |   .  |  | ||
                                        ]_e_,    _,_,  |_|  4_, |  |_||
                                    (_S    .  (_S.
Sunni References:
(1) Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Traditions 5.56, 5.700
(2) Sahih Muslim, Arabic, v4, pp 1870-71
(3) Sunan Ibn Majah, p12
(4) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p174
(5) al-Khasa'is, by al-Nisa'i, pp 15-16
(6) Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v2, p309

 

Asnad of Hadith of Ghadir:

a. al-Hafiz Abu 'Isa at-Tirmidhi (d.279 A.H.) has said in his Sahih (one of the as-Sihah as-Sittah) that "This is a good (hasan) and correct (sahih) hadith.''[24]

b. al-Hafiz Abu Ja'far at-Tahawi (d. 321 A.H.) has said in his Mushkil u'l-athar that "This hadith is sahih according to the chains of narrators (asnad) and no one has said anything contrary to its narTators." [25]

c. Abu 'Abdillah al-Hakim an-Naysaburi (d. 405 A.H.) has narrated this hadith from several chains in his al-Mustadrak and has said that this hadith is sahih[26]

d. Abu Muhammad Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-'Asim; has said: "This hadith is accepted by ummah, and it is in conformity with the principles.

Likewise, the following traditionalists (among hundreds of others) have quoted that this hadith is sahih:-

1. Abu 'Abdillah al-Mahamili al-Baghdadi in his Amali; 2. Ibn 'Abdi 'l-Barr al-Qurtubi in al-Isti 'ab; 3. Ibnu 'l-Maghazili ash-shafi'i in al-Manaqib; 4. Abu Hamid Ghazzali in Sirru 'l-'alamayn; 5. Abu'l-Faraj ibn al-Jawzi in alManaqib; 6. Sibt ibn al-Jawzi in Tadhkirat khawaissi 'l-ummah; 7. Ibn Abi'l-Hadid al-Mu'tazili in his Sharh Nahji 'l-balaighah; 8. Abu 'Abdillah al Ganji ash-Shafi'i in Kifayatu 't-talib; 9. Abu 'l-Makarim 'Ala'ud-Din as-Simnani in al-'Urwatu'l-wuthqa; 10. Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani in Tahdhibu'l-tahdhib; 11. Ibn Kathir ad-Dimashqi in his Tarikh; 12. Jalalu'd-Din as-Suyuti; 13. al-Qastalani in al-Mawahibu 'l-ladunniyyah; 14. Ibn Hajar al-Makki in as-Sawa'iqu 'l-muhriqah; 15. 'Abdu'l-Haqq ad Dihlawi in Sharhu 'l-mishkat; and many others. [28]

It should be noted that all the names mentioned above are of Sunni scholars; and in Sunni usage, a hadith is called ''sahih'' when it is uninterruptedly narrated by persons of approved probity ('adil) who have perfect memory, does not have any defect, and is not unusual (shadhdh). [29]

If the above virtues are found in the asnad of a hadith but the memory of one or more of its narrators is a degree less than that required for sahih, then it is called "hasan[30]

Salam

"The structure of faith is supported by four pillars endurance, conviction, justice and jihad."

Imam Ali (a.s.)
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Post Options Post Options   Thanks (0) Thanks(0)   Quote Ayubi1187 Quote  Post ReplyReply Direct Link To This Post Posted: 30 June 2005 at 7:17am
Quote The First Time


This happened in the early stage of islam when the prophet(saw) was commanded to start the mission with his relatives. And it was only amoungs the children of sons of Abd Al Muttalib that he said this.



Quote The Second Time



The Prophet left `Ali behind in the campaign of Tabuk. Ali(ra) said: "O Messenger of Allah! Are you leaving me behind with the women and children?"
The Prophet replied: "Are you not happy to stand next to me like Harun next to Musa, save that there is no Prophet after me?" It was in this context that he was called like Harun(as) who was left behind when Musa(as) went to mount Sinai. And if we take literally this would be against the shia because Harun(as) was not the successor to Musa(as).


Quote The third Time


If you read history you will know why the prophet(saw) said this. it was after the army under the leadership of Ali(ra) returned from mission to yemen that some people from his army started to complain about Ali(ra) read more about this in Musnad, Ahmad Hanbal, vol. 4 p. 438, Ibn Ishaq, The Life of Muhammad, p. 650. 2)Tabari, The Last Years of the Prophet, IX, p. 111. 3) Mustadrak, Hakim, vol. 11 p. 11, and al Dhahabi in his. Talkhis al Mustadrak
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