'Ali ibn ahmad az-zahiri, born in cordoba in 384/994. he was the main representative of the zahirite school after he abandoned the shafi`i school. his contentiousness eventually forced him to withdraw to his family estate where he died in 456/1064.
Muhammad ibn hibban at-tamimi al-busti, a shafi`i hadith scholar who died in bust in 354/965. he wrote kitab aththigat and compiled the sahih ibn hibban. the hadiths in this book are arranged neither as in a musannaf nor as in a musnad.
Muhammad ibn ahmad, abu'l-qasim ibn juzayy al-kalbi of granada, born in 693/1294, a maliki scholar and imam in tafsir and fiqh. he wrote al-qawa'id al-fiqhiya. he died in 741/1340.
Muhammad ibn ahmad, abu'l-qasim ibn juzayy al-kalbi of granada, born in 693/1294, a maliki scholar and imam in tafsir and high. he wrote the well-known tafsir, at-tashil fi `ulum at-tanzil. he died in 741/1340.
`Imad ad-din isma'il ibn 'umar ibn kathir, abu'l-fida', born in 701/1302 in a village outside damascus. he moved to damascus at the age of five. he was widely travelled and studied with many famous scholars, including ibn taymiyya. he was a shafi`i scholar with books with expertise in various areas. he was greatly respected. he has a well-known tafsir. he has little respect for the intellectual tradition. he dislikes polyvalent readings and argues for a single `correct' reading and hence he is somewhat dogmatic: it might even be said that he impoverishes the text by removing the layered meaning. his desire is also to include all of the relevant hadiths relevant to the text. he died in damascus in 774/1372.
Isma'il ibn 'umar ibn kathir, abu'l-fida', born in 701/1302 in a village outside damascus where he moved at the age of five. he was widely travelled. he was a shafi`i scholar with books with expertise in various areas, particularly the science of rijal. he has a well-known tafsir. he died in damascus in 774/1372.
Abu `abdullah Muhammad ibn khafif ibn isfikshar ash-shirazi, born in 276/890. the son of a prince, he became an ascetic sufi. he was also a shafi`i scholar. he went on hajj at least six times. he died in shiraz in 371/982 at the age of 95.
Muhammad ibn ishaq, abu bakr as-sulami, born in nishapur in 223/838. he was a shafi i scholar and mujtahid and wrote more than 140 books, including his mukhtasar al-mukhtasar and a sahih collection. he died in nishapur in 311/924.
Yahya ibn main, abu zakariyya al-baghdadi, born in niqya, a village near al-'anbar in 157/775. he was one of the great imams of hadith and knowledge of its narrators, known as "the master of hadith masters." his father left him a fortune which he spent on gathering hadiths. he said, "i have written a million hadiths with my hand." he lived in baghdad and wrote several books on hadith and died while on hajj in 233/848.
Muhammad ibn yazid ar-rabi', abu `abdullah al-qazwini, of qazwin, born in 209/824. he was a hadith master and mufassir who travelled in search of knowledge and composed his sunan. he died in 273/886.
`Abdu's-salam, the master of abu'l-hasan ash-shadhili, (d. c. 625/1228). he was a berber and the qutb of his age. he was a recluse who lived on the jabal 'alam, a mountain in morocco. all he left was the salat al-mashishiya.
Ahmad ibn musa at-tamimi: the chief of the reciters, and the first to compile the seven recitations in al-qira'at as-sab`a. he was born in 245/859 and died in 324/935.
'Abdullah ibn Muhammad ibn qudama, abu Muhammad al-jama'ili al-maqdisi, born in jama'il, palestine, in 541/1146, a hanbali scholar and imam educated in damascus who wrote the nine volume al-mughni on hanbali fiqh. he died in damascus in 620/1223.
Abu'l-faraj `abdu'r-rahman b. ahmad al-baghdadi al-hanbali, who died in 795/1392-3. the author of adh-dhayl, al-istikhraj and al-qawa`id. his tabaqat al-hanabila is the most extensive collection of biographies of hanbalis.
Averroes. ibn rusha was a genius with encyclopaedic knowledge. he spent a great part of his fruitful life as a judge and as a physician, yet he was known in the west for being the great commentator on the philosophy of aristotle. he was born in cordova, spain in 520/1128 and died in 595/1198. his book on jurisprudence bidayat al-mujtahid wa-nihayat al-muqtasid has been held by some as possibly the best book on the maliki school of fiqh. his grandfather, abu'l-walid was also known as ibn rushd and was a maliki faqih who wrote al-muqaddimat.
See Muhammad ibn sa'd.
'Ali al-basra, (d. 297/909-10), a disciple of sahl at-tustari, founder of the salimiya and the main teacher of abu talib al-makki.
Ahmad ibn `abdu'l-halim, born in harran in 661/1263, the famous hanbali scholar. he was imprisoned for much of his life. he was a copious writer - perhaps too copious. he died in damascus in 728/1328.
Abu Muhammad `abdullah ibn wahb al-fihri al-misri, born in 123/740, a hadith scholar. he stayed with malik for about twenty years, and also studied with many of the companions of az-zuhri. he also related from more than four hundred shaykhs of hadith in egypt, the hijaz and iraq. ibn wahb noticed that some of his hadiths were weak. he said, "if it had not been that Allah rescued me through malik and al-layth, i would have been lost." he was asked, "how is that?" he replied, "i had a lot of hadith and it confused me. i used to present them to malik and al-layth and they would say, `take this and leave that."' malik esteemed and loved him. he used to call him "the faqih" when he wrote to him. he had many excellent books, including what he heard from malik which was recorded in about thirty books. he wrote down the muwatta'. he recorded his answers to questions and consulted them. he was asked to accept the post of qadi but refused and withdrew, dying in 197/812 at the age of 72 `
The prophet abraham.
Abraham, a prophet and righteous person revered by Muslims, Jews, and Christians alike as the patriarch (father-figure) of monotheism. Muslims commemorate Abraham's devotion, struggles, and sacrifices during the annual Hajj rites.
Ibn ahmad, (d. 290/903), a sufi author who taught al-khuldi. he lived mostly at rayy although he studied extensively.
Ibrahim ibn adham
Abu ishaq at-tamimi al-balkhi, an early sufi zahid and saint. born into a wealthy family of balkh, he gave it all up to seek knowledge through travel, taking on all sorts of menial jobs and fighting in the jihad against the byzantines. while he was in massisa, a slave brought the news of the death of his father, who had left him a fortune. he was carrying 10,000 dirhams. ibrahim freed him and gave him the dirhams, saying that he had no need of the rest. he fasted all the time. he attended the gatherings of sufyan ath-thawri. he died in 161/778, probably at sufnan on the byzantine frontier.
In qur'an recitation, to assimilate one letter into another. thus an-ya `bud becomes ay-ya `bud, qad tabayyan becomes qattabayyan, etc.
A kind of sweet rush well-known for its good smell and found in the hijrz.
Permission, usually either to be a shaykh, or to practice dhikr given by a shaykh.
Interpolation into a hadith.
The prophet, possibly enoch.
Shakiness in the isnad.
(Obligation) imposed on man without his choice.
"Overflow", in the hajj when the pilgrims hasten from 'arafat to muzdalifa.
A form of hajj in which hajj is performed before 'umra.
Ifrad (Hajj al)
"Single Hajj". Performing Hajj without performing the Umrah.
Breaking the fast.
A form of sitting in the prayer in which you sit on the left foot which is on its side, while the right foot is resting upright on the bottom of its toes with the heel up. (cf. tawarruk).
The period of mourning observed by a widow.
A state in which one is prohibited to practise certain deeds that are lawful at other times, necessary when performing the rites of `umra and hajj.
State of consecration into which Muslims enter in order to perform the Hajj or Umrah (lesser pilgrimage). The term also refers to the specific dress, made of white, unstitched, seamless cloth, donned by pilgrims while in this state. During the Hajj, the ihram worn by pilgrims serves to reinforce a sense of humility and purity, and human equality in the eyes of God.
The state in which one is prohibited from doing certain things which are lawful at other times. Umrah and Hajj are performed in such a state.
A state in which one is prohibited to practise certain deeds that are lawful at other times. the ceremonies of 'umra and hajj are performed in this state. when one assumes this state, the first thing one should do is to express mentally and orally one's intention to assume this state for the purpose of performing hajj or 'umra. then talbiya is recited. two sheets of unstitched cloth are the only clothes a man wears: an izar worn below one's waist and a rida' worn round the upper part of the body.
(ehsan ehsaan ihsan)
Ihsan has two literal meanings,
doing something well and perfectly and doing someone a favor, and is sometimes
used in the Quran and the Sunna with either meaning.
According to a Prophetic saying, ihasn
(perfect goodness or doing what is beautiful) means that you worship God as if
you see Him; for even if you do not see Him, He certainly sees you.
Absolute sincerity to Allah in oneself: it is to worship Allah as though you were seeing him because he sees you.
Virtue, doing the best.
The state of being muhsin, an unblemished reputation sexually of someone who is or has been married.