(Plural of fard), solitary individuals, people who are outside the jurisidiction of the qutb and follow a solitary spiritual path.
Rafidite sect, see futhiyya.
After Hijra. Hijra means emigration. The Islamic calendar starts from the day the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.), emigrated from Mekkah to Madinah, in 622 A.D.
(Khabar) an isolated hadith; a report which is transmitted through a single isnad or from a single source.
"One", designating Allah's unique oneness, disconnected from others. (see qur'an 112:1),
Sayings and traditions of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.). Singular: Hadith.
Plural of hadith.
The transcendent unity which is not the object of any distinctive knowledge and so is not accessible to the creature; the state of unity which admits of no plurality whatsoever, the unity is the sum of all potentialities and as such is not an object of worship.
The plural of hukm: laws, values and ordinances.
Legal judgements which are derived from the qur'an.
"Rulings of the qur'an" by qadi ibn al-`arab1 (d. 543/1148). there are several books with this title by different authors. essentially it presents the ayats which contain legal judgements and explains them. it is very systematically formulated.
House, family, kin.
"People of the pact", protected non-muslim subjects.(see dhimma).
Ahl al-'adl wa't-tawhid
"The people of justice and unity", the title used by the mu'tazilites for themselves: "justice", because they say that human actions are not predetermined by Allah or it would be unjust for god to reward or punish people; "unity", because they reject the attribution of any physical and human qualities to Allah, saying that Allah is not only unique, but also he has no multiplicity within him. they hold the view that all anthropomorphic expressions in the qur'an must be interpreted as metaphors and images, and must not be understood literally.
"The people of the house," the family of the prophet.
A term used to denote the conservative traditionalists, especially at the time of the mu'tazilite/ash'arite conflict during the 'abbasid era.
"The people of hadith", term used for conservative traditionalists, especially during the time of the mu'tazilite/ash'arite conflict.
Ahl al-hall wa'l-`aqd
"The people of loosing and binding," i.e, the `ulama' (scholars), leaders and army commanders who make binding decisions for the community.
"The people of war", non-muslims living beyond the muslim frontier.
"The people of the book", principally the jews and christians whose religions are based on the divine books revealed to musa and `isa; a term also used to refer to any other group who claim to be following a book revealed prior to the qur'an.
Literally, "People of the Book." This term, found in the Qur'an, describes adherents of divinely revealed religions that preceeded Islam. Most commonly, the term refers to Jews and Christians, and confers upon these two groups a special status within Muslim society, owing to the monotheistic basis of their religions.
The people of gnosis, the gnostics.
The people of madina, particularly the first three generations: the companions, the tabi`un, and the tabi`u't-tabi`in.
People of opinion. it is used to refer to people who make use of the principle of ra'y to arrive at rulings.
means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned in Islam.
Means people of opinion. It is refers to people that are consulted on Islamic matters. These people are highly learned in Islam.
The people of tasawwuf or sufism.
Ahl as-sunna wa'l-jama`a
The people of the sunna and the community: all the people who follow the sunna of the prophet and who hold together as a community on that basis; the main body of the muslim community.
Legal capacity, also called kaja'a.
An active legal capacity which can incur rights as well as obligations.
A receptive legal capacity which is good for receiving entitlements but cannot incur obligations.
Legal capacity for execution.
Legal capacity for the acquisition of rights and obligations.
Ahlul Kitab Wa Sunnah
Literally means "the People of the Book (the Holy Qur'an) and the sayings and traditions, i.e. the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W.)".
A famous sufi, said to be descended from 'ali, the fourth khalif. he was born in fez in the zuqaq al-hajar in 596/1199-1200, the youngest of eight children. he went to makka with his family while still a child. he knew the seven gira'at. he went to tanta (tandita) in egypt and became very ascetic. the founder of the ahmadiya or badawiya tariqa, he died in 675/1276.
(1266/1850 - 1345/1927) His actual name was Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn habibullah, the son of a wolof shaykh. born in m'backe, senegal, he was the founder of the muridiya tariqa in senegal, a sub-group of the qadiriyya. although he was a zahid, he was persecuted by the french as a possible threat because of his popularity. he founded the village of touba in baol for his followers, where they cultivated peanuts. in 1895, he was exiled to gabon for seven years. he was exiled a second time to mauritania where he remained until 1325/1907.
Ahmad ibn an-naqib al-misri
Ahmad ibn lu'lu' ar-rums, shihab ad-din. his father was a christian convert from antakya, turkey, who was originally captured and enslaved by a muslim prince who educated him and then set him free. then he served him as a captain (naqib) and later became a sufi in the baybariyya of cairo where ahmad was born in 702/1302. ahmad memorised the seven qira'at and studied shafi`i fiqh, tafsir, arabic, and sufism. he wrote the 'umdat as-salik. he died of the plague in ramadan in 769/1368 at the age of 67.
Ahmad ibn hanbal
Abu 'abdullah ash-shaybani, imam of the ahl as-sunna, born in baghdad in 164/780 and grew up there as an orphan. he was devoted to the sunna so that he became its imam in his time. he travelled for sixteen years in pursuit of hadith and memorised 100,000 hadiths, 30,000 of which are in his musnad. he was a hafiz of qur'an, memorised al-muwatta' of imam malik, and learned fiqh from ash-shafi`i. he was the founder of the hanbali madhhab. it is said that in his gatherings only the hereafter was mentioned - nothing of worldly things. he prayed every night and used to recite the entire qur'an every day. he was imprisoned and tortured for twenty-eight months under the 'abbasid khalif al-mu'tasim for refusing to state that the qur'an was created. he died in 241/855.
Ahmad ibn hanbal
Imam of the ahl as-sunna and founder of the hanbali school, born in baghdad in 164/780. he was so devoted to the sunna and hadith that he became their imam in his time. he learned fiqh from ash-shafi`i. he died in 241/855.
Tariqa in egypt from ahmad al-badawi, the famous egyptian sufi (d. 675/1276). it is also called the badawiya. it has numerous branches, but is confined to egypt. its members wear a red turban. it was popular among the mamluks, and has several subbranches. (not to be confused with the sect bearing the same name, also known as the qadianis, who by declaring their leader, mirza ghulam ahmad (d. 1326/1908) to be a prophet have been declared kafirun by the sunni `ulama'.)
The seven different modes in which the qur'an was revealed.
Plural of hal.
means parties. Ahzab is used to describe the different tribes that fought the Muslims in the Battle of the Ditch in 627 C.E., 5 A.H..
"Affirmationists", those who affirmed the qadar or divine omnipotence; blanket term used by the mu'tazilites for their opponents, from dirar to al-ash`ari.
Daughter of Abu Bakr and one of the wives of Prophet Muhammad. Aisha transmitted a large number of the Prophet's hadith, which were compiled by scholars in early Islamic history.
A delay granted to the debtor for repayment of a loan or for the performance of an obligation.
A kharijite sub-sect, close in belief to the najdites. they were the followers of 'abdu'l-karim ibn 'ajrad.
A remuneration based on what is customary in the community.
Plural of khabar.