When two or more links are omitted in the isnad.
Inimitability of the qur' an. there have been three ways of stating it. the argument of sarfa: Allah turns people away from imitating the qur'an, associated with the mu'tazilite an-nazzam (d. c. 241/835); the contents of the qur'an make it inimitable, stated by al jahiz (d. 271/864); and the third is based on the inimitability of the language itself, which no one can imitate even if they try to do so.
By ibn al-qayyim al-jawziyya (d. 751/1350), a major work on usul al-fiqh.
Grammatical inflection; the rules for the vowel endings.
"Consideration," seeking ways of strengthening support for a hadith from a single source.
Belief, being convinced about the truth of something.
Seclusion, while fasting, in a mosque, particularly in the last ten days of ramadan.
Lit. "withdrawal", the theology of that group which withdrew from the circle of hasan al-basri and came to be known as the mu `tazilites.
Literally, "worship," this term refers to any and all acts which demonstrate obedience and commitment to God. Thus in Islam, visiting the sick, giving charity, hugging one's spouse, or any other good act is considered an act of ibadah.
The followers of `abdullah ibn ibad. they are the most balanced of the kharijites and the closest to the muslims in opinon and thought. they maintain the distinction between kufr ni`ma and kufr shirk. they assert that every sin is kufr ni `ma and that grave sinners will be in the fire forever.
Type of informal commercial collaboration in which one party entrusts his goods to the care of another, usually to be sold, after which the latter, without any compensation, commission or profit, returns the proceeds of the transaction to the first party.
The personal name of Satan, or the devil, as found in the Qur'an. Iblis is believed to be a prominent member of the jinn, a class of God's creation. He rebelled against God and was cast out from Heaven. God warns human beings repeatedly in the Qur'an that Iblis is an avowed enemy of humankind, whose temptations must be resisted in order to stay on the "Straight Path."
The personal name of the devil. he is also called shaytan or the "enemy of Allah".
The personal name of the devil. it means "seized by despair". he is also called shaytan or the "enemy of Allah".
Arabic term meaning "son of." Many famous Muslim men in history are known by a shortened version of their names begining with ibn. Examples include, Ibn Khaldun (a historian), Ibn Sina (a physician), Ibn Rushd (a judge and philosopher), and Ibn Battuta (a world traveler).
An-numayri, abu 'umar, hafiz of the maghrib and shaykh al-islam, author of al-isti `ab. he was born in cordoba in 368/978 and died at the age of 95 in shatiba in 463/1071. an important hadith scholar, malikl scholar and author and a mujtahid, he was nicknamed the hadith scholar of the west. 'abdu'l-barr was the master of the people of his time in memory and precision. he was an expert on genealogy and history. ibn hazm said, "there is no one with more knowledge of the fiqh of hadith than him." he wrote a number of works, the most famous of which is al-isti'ab. he travelled throughout andalusia. he was appointed gadi several times. he also wrote the earliest major commentary on the muwatta' called al-istidhkar.
Muhammad amin ibn 'umar, born in damascus in 1198/1784. originally a shafi`i, he changed and became the hanafi imam of his time. his most famous work is the eight volume hashiyya radd al-muhtar, which is considered authoritative in the hanafi school. he wrote on various areas of knowledge and died in 1252/1836.
Ahmad ibn Muhammad, born in morocco in 1160/1747, a maliki scholar, sufi and mufassir (al-bahr al-madid), one of the shadhiliya tariga, which he took from ad-dargawi by way of Muhammad buzaydi. he wrote seventeen commentaries on the hikam. he died in 'anjara, morocco in 1224/1809.
Ibn `abbad ar-rundi
A famous shadhili sufi, one of al-maqqari's disciples, he wrote a commentary on the hikam of ibn `ata'llah which made it widely known throughout the western muslim lands. he was born in ronda in 734/1332, studied in tlemcen and fez and eventually became imam of the qarawiyin madrasa in fes. he died in 793/1390.
An-numayri, abu 'umar, hafiz of the maghrib and shaykh al-islam. he was born in cordova in 368/978 and died at the age of 95 in shatiba in 463/1071. a major hadith scholar, maliki scholar, author, and mujtahid, he was nicknamed "the hadith scholar of the west". ibn hazm said, "there is no one with more knowledge of the fiqh of hadith than him." he wrote a number of works, the most famous of which is al-isti'ab. he travelled throughout andalusia and acted as qadi several times. he wrote the earliest major commentary on the muwatta' entitled al-istidhkdr.
'Izz ibn 'abd as-salam as-sulami, "the sultan of the scholars", born in damascus in 577/1181. he was a shafi`i scholar and companion of imam abu'l-hasan ash-shadhili. his reputation was the stuff of legends. in damascus as the khatib, he refused to wear black, speak in saj ` or praise the princes. when as-salih isma`il made concessions to the crusaders, ibn `abdu's-salam condemned him from the minbar. he refused to compromise in any way whatsoever. he later resigned and retired to write a number of books on shafi'i fiqh, tafsir, and other legal areas. his masterpiece was qawa'id al-ahkamfi masalih al-anam. he died in 660/1262.
`Abdullah ibn 'adl al-jurjanl, (277/891 - 365/976). he wrote al-kamil, a general survey of the development of critical assessment of the narrators of hadith.
`All, (d. 571/1176), author of tabyin and ta'rikh dimishq which contain biographies of transmitters.
Ahmad ibn Muhammad, taju'd-din, abu fadl aliskandari, the sufi imam and author of the hikam, lata'if al-minan, miftah al-falah, and other works, thereby providing the shadhiliyya with their core literature. his shaykh was abu'1-`abbas al-mursi, whose shaykh was ash-shadhili. from alexandria, he moved to cairo where he died in 709/1309 around the age of sixty. he also taught in the al-azhar and the mansuriya madrasa. there was a famous debate between him and ibn taymiyya in 707/1307, in which ibn `ata'llah defended ibn al-`arabi.
Abu Muhammad `abdu'l-haqq ibn ghalib al-andalusi (481/1088-9 - c. 542/1147). a north african who abridged all the commentaries and selected the most likely interpretations in al-muharrir al-wajiz. this book is in general circulation in the western islamic world. al-qurtubi adopted his method.
Ibn abi dunya
A sufi in baghdad, (d. 281/894). he had a book entitled dhamm ad-dunya ("censuring this world").
Ibn abi shayba
Abu bakr ibn abi shayba: the author of the musnad, al-musannaf and other books. based in kufa, iraq, ibn abi shayba was a major authority in hadith. abu zur'a, al-bukharl, muslim, and abu dawud all related from him. he died in muharram, 235/849.
Ibn abi zayd al-qayrawani
Abu Muhammad `abdullah, maliki faqih, 310/922 - 386/996. he was known as "shaykh al-faqih" and "little malik" and was the head of the maliki school in qayrawan. he wrote several books, including his risala, mukhtasar al-mudawwana, an abridgement of the mudawwana, and an-nawadir.
Qadi abu bakr Muhammad ibn `abdullah al-ishbili al-ma`afiri (d. 543/1148), author of ahkam al-qur'an. he was born in seville and went to north africa after the fall of the 'abbadid dynasty and travelled to the east. he then returned to seville which was under the murabitun and became qadi and taught fiqh. he also witnessed the fall of the murabitun and rise of the muwahhidun. he died near fes while returning from marrakesh after a visit to the muwahhid ruler. he wrote over thirty books, including awasim min al-qawasim about the first civil war between muslims.
Muhammad ibn 'ali, abu bakr al-hatimi at-td'i, born in murcia in 560/1165, a mujtahid, scholar and sufi. he is known as muhyiddin (the reviver of the din) and the shaykh al-akbar (the greatest master). he died in damascus in 638/1240 with a copy of ihya' `ulum ad-din on his lap. he wrote over 350 works including the futuhat al-makkiyya and the fusus al-hikam.
Ibn al-`arabi states
"It is what the heart unexpectedly encounters of its unseen states with drawn from witnessing.
The author of mahasin al-majalis ("the attractions of mystical sessions"), his full name was abu'l-`abbas ahmad ibn Muhammad. he lived in almeria, spain. in this period, under the murabitun, almeria was the centre of sufism for the spanish sufis. he founded a tariqa and 130 towns recognised him as imam. he was arrested by the jealous qadi of the city and sent in chains to the amir in marrakesh who promptly set him free. he died a few days later, in 536/1141. he was the first to interpret the ihya' `ulum ad-din of al-ghazali in the west. ibn 'ata': abu'l-`abbas ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn sahl ibn 'ata' al-adami, a sufi and companion of junayd, author of poetry. he was put to death in 309/922.
'Umar ibn `ali, the sufi poet, born in cairo in 577/1182 and lived in the muqattam in cairo. he died in 632/1235. he is known as the "sultan of the lovers" and his collection of poems is very famous because of the high quality of the poetry.
Abu'l faraj `abdu'r-rahman ibn jawzi, born in baghdad in 508/1114, a great hanbali scholar of his time in history and hadith, famous for his many chronicles of the scholars and saints of the times preceding him. ibn al-jawzi's work talbis iblis is one of his best known works. ibn al-jawzi opposed all doctrines and practices, regardless of their sources, which were innovations in the rule of shari'a - i.e. not found in the qur'an and sunna, wherever found in the islamic community, especially in ibn al-jawzi's time. he wrote condemning specific innovated practices of many groups, including: philosophers (mutakallimun), theologians, traditionalists (`ulama' al-hadith), jurists (fuqaha'), preachers, philologists, poets and false sufis. he wrote nearly three hundred books on tasawwuf, fiqh, `ilm al-qur'an, hadith, tafsir and biographies of many of the great men of tasawwuf. two of his works considered as pillars in the field of tasawwuf are safwat as-safa and minhaj al-qasidin wa mufid as-sadiqin. in addition, full length biographies in praise of the early sufis were penned by ibn al-jawzi. he is sometimes confused with ibn al-qayyim al-jawziyya. he died in damascus in 597/1201.
Abu `abdullah Muhammad ibn ibrahim al-iskandari, pupil of ibn al-majishun and ibn 'abdu'l-hakam and early systematiser of maliki fiqh. he also studied under asbagh and ashhab. he died in syria as a refugee in 281/894 where he had fled from the inquisition about the createdness of the qur'an (see mihna). he wrote a famous book known as al-mawwaziya.
See 'abdullah ibn al-mubarak.
Abu `abdullah `abdu'r-rahman ibn al-qasim al-`ataki (or al-`utaqi) who had both knowledge and asceticism. he was one of the companions of malik who had tremendous influence in recording his school, since he was the source for sahnun for the problems of malik. in the maliki school, he has the same position as Muhammad ibn al-hasan ash-shaybani in the school of abu hanifa. both of them transmitted the school and made free use of ijtihad. ibn al-qasim had opinions which differed from those of his shaykh,malik, so that some said that he was dominated by opinion. ibn 'abdu'l-barr said of him, "he was a faqih dominated by opinion. he was a righteous and steadfast man." he met malik after ibn wahb and kept his company for a long time - about twenty years. he can be considered as the main transmitter of maliki fiqh as the mudawwana, of which he is the source, is the largest compendium of maliki fiqh. he would not accept stipends from the ruler and said, "there is no good in proximity to rulers." he had sat with them at first, but then he abandoned them. he used to consider having a large number of close companions to be a form of slavery since that puts a qadi in danger of committing injustice and the scholar of wasting his time. he died in 191/806 at the age of 63.
Abu'l-qasim, disciple of ibn al-'arif, a sufi who organised a religious militia in the algarve (southern portugal) based in silves and led an uprising against the ruling class and fuqaha' in the algarve in 536/1141. he had military successes against both the murabitun and the muwahhidun and ruled the region for ten years. he wrote khal` an-na`layn. he was killed in 546/1151.
Muhammad ibn abi bakr, abu `abdullah al-jawziyya, born in damascus in 691/1292, a hanbali hadith scholar who wrote zad al-ma`ad. he also wrote i`lam al-muwaqqi`in on usul al-fiqh. he edited the works of his shaykh, ibn taymiyya. he went to prison with him in damascus and remained with him until ibn taymiyya's death in 728/1328. he died in damascus in 751/1350.
"Child of the moment," see waqt.
Traveller, wayfarer. it literally means "son of the road".
Abu 'amr 'uthman ibn `abdu'r-rahman ash-shahrazuri, known as ibn as-salah. an important shafi'i scholar, he was a kurd born in sharkhan in 577/1181. he studied in many cities and became a master of hadith. one of his teachers was ibn qudama. he was appointed the head of the dar al-hadith in damascus. he wrote a number of books on various topics, including fiqh. he has a famous collection of fatwas called fatawa ibn as-saldh. he died in 643/1245.
Abu 'amr `uthman ibn `abdu'r-rahman ash-shahrazuri, known as ibn as-salah. he died in 643/1245. he wrote a book on the science of hadith, kitab 'nam al-hadith. he was a great authority in damascus.
(Ibn babawayh) Muhammad ibn `all al-qumml, (306/918 - 381/992). he is known also as shaykh saduq. author of the main shiite collections of hadith, man la yahdhuruh al-fagih, which covers only legal matters.
Ibn daqiq al-'id
Taqiyyuddin Muhammad ibn `all, born in yanbu', a shafi`i, mujtahid, made qadi in cairo in 695. he has poems in praise of madina. he was born in 625/1228 and died in 702/1302.
'Abd al-malik as-sulami, a maliki jurist of cordoba who studied under ibn al-majishun. he was the author of al-wadiha, one of the major maliki texts which was used in andalusia. it was one of the most comprehensive books of maliki fiqh. although it no longer exists, much of it is quoted in an-nawadir of ibn abi zayd al-qayrawani. he travelled throughout the world in search of knowledge and verifying what he had. he died in 238/852. he wrote several books. al-'utbi was his pupil and hence most of his work comes through him.
Ibn hajar al-`asgalani
Abu'l-fadl ahmad ibn 'ali, born in cairo in 773/1372. shafi`i fagih and hadith scholar, he studied under azzayla`i and others, was a gadi several times and was known as "shaykh al-islam". he wrote fath al-bari and died in cairo in 852/1449.
Ibn hajar al-haytami
Ahmad ibn Muhammad, born in 909/1504 in abu haytam, western egypt, was the shafi imam of his time. he received permission to give fatwas when he was barely 20. he died in makka in 974/1567. he wrote many definitive works on shafi`i fiqh, esp. tuhfat al-muhtaj, a commentary on an-nawawi's minhaj at-talibin, al-fatawa al-kubra, and az-zawajir.