The plural of imam.
Plural of imam al-madhhab; imams of the legal schools.
A'uzu billahi minashaitanir rajim
This is an expression and a statement that Muslims have to recite before reading to Qur'an, before speaking, before doing any work, before making a supplication, before taking ablution, before entering the wash room, and before doing many other daily activities. The meaning of this phrase is:I seek refuge in Allah from the outcast Satan.Allah is the Arabic name of God.
Satan is the source of evil and he always tries to misguide and mislead people. The Qur'an states that Satan is not an angel but a member of the Jinn, which are spiritual beings created by Allah. So the belief that Satan is a fallen angel is rejected in Islam.
means After Hijrah. It is the reference used in the Islamic calender, instead of A.D. which is used in the Christian calender.
A`udhu billahi min ash-shaytan ar-rajim
The arabic expression meaning "i seek protection in Allah from the accursed shaytan." one says this before beginning to recite the qur'an.
A`udhu billahi min ash-shaytan ar-rajim
The arabic expression "i seek protection in Allah from the accursed shaytan." one says this before beginning to recite the qur'an.
After-time, eternity without beginning. the secret of after-time is the negation of lastness.
A prefix used in many Muslim male names in conjunction with a divine attribute of God, meaning "servant." Examples include Abd-Allah ("servant of God"), Abd al-Rahman ("servant of the Most Merciful"), and Abd al-Khaliq ("servant of the Creator").
Plural of badl.
The plural of badan, "body", used in sharika al-abdan, partner ship in physical labour for gain.
A runaway slave.
Literally "alphabet", a system of calculation based on the numerical values of the arabic letters. "abjad" is the first of a series of eight words which comprise all the letters of the alphabet.
Abu 'ali ad-daqqaq
The imam of the sufis of his time and the shaykh of abu'l-qasim al-qushayri. originally from nishapur, he studied there, after which he travelled to marw, where he studied shafi`i fiqh. he died in 405/1014.
Abu Bakr as-Sadiq
(aboo buck-er as-saa-dik)
One of the closest companions of Prophet Muhammad, given the appelation as-Sadiq, "the Truthful." Upon the death of the Prophet in 632 C.E., Abu Bakr became the first Caliph (successor) and served as leader of the Muslim community until his death in 634 C.E.
Abu sulayman ibn al-ash'ath ibn ishaq al-azdi as-sijistani, the author of the sunan and one of the greatest of the scholars of hadith. he was born in 203/817 and died on a friday in the middle of shawwal, 275/888 in basra. he was so accomplished in the science of hadith that it was said that hadiths were made pliable for abu dawud in the same way that iron was made pliable for the prophet da'ud. he said, "i wrote down 500,000 hadiths of the prophet and selected from them those which are in the sunan." he was a pupil of ibn hanbal.
Abu hanifa an-nu`man ibn thabit, founder of the hanafi school in baghdad. he is one of the four imams and is known for developing ra'y (judicial opinion). he shunned sleep and was called the "peg" because he used to stand for long periods in night prayers. he only slept between zuhr and asr. he grew up in kufa and the khalif al-mansur asked him to accept the post of qadi. he refused and al-mansur imprisoned him and beat him until he died. he would never sit in the shade of someone to whom he had loaned money, saying, "every loan that brings benefit is usury." he died in 150/767.
Shu'ayb ibn al-husayn al-ansari, (520/1126 - 594/1198), an andalusian who later taught in bougie. he was born near seville and is buried in the village of al-'ubbad, outside tlemcen. he was the qutb, al-ghawth, of his time. he met `abdu'l-qadir al-jilani while on hajj. he is credited with the introduction of the qadiriya into the maghrib. he is known as sidi boumedienne in algeria.
Abu nu`aym al-isfahani
Ahmad ibn `abdullah ibn ahmad al-isfahani, a notable hadith scholar who studied under many excellent men. he wrote various works, including al-mustadrak `ala kull min as-sahihayn and hilya al-awliya'. it is said that it was taken to nishapur and sold there for 400 dinars. he was born in rajab, 334/942 and died in safar, or on 20 muharram, 430/1038 in isfahan.
Abu sa'id al-kharraz
Ahmad ibn 'isa, a sufi and author of kitab as-sidq, (d. c. 286/899). al-hujwiri says that he was the first to explain the doctrine of fana' (annihilation) and baga' (going on). he was also known for his emphasis on 'ishq (passionate love of Allah) and his scrupulous observance of the shari `a.
Abu talib al-makki
Abu Muhammad ibn all, shaykh of the sufis and people of the sunna. he was born in iraq between baghdad and wasit. he was a sufi, maliki faqih and scholar. he wrote the qut al-qulub. he died in baghdad in 386/998-9. he was the leader of the salimiya in basra.
Ahmad ibn 'ali at-tamimi al-mawsull, author of musnad al-kabir. he was a hafiz of hadith who was known as "the hadith scholar of mosul". he died in mosul in 307/919.
Ya`qub ibn ibrahim ibn habib al-ansari al-baghdadi, born in kufa in 113/731. he was the student of abu hanifa and the first to propagate his school, a hadith master and brilliant jurist who had an extensive knowledge of tafsir. he acted as qadi in baghdad for al-mahdi, al-hadi and harun ar-rashid, who made the hanafi school the official state code for the 'abbasids. he was also the first to write on the principles (usul) of hanafi fiqh, and was a mujtahid. he died in baghdad in 182/798. he wrote kitab al-kharaj on taxation and constitutional questions.
Unending and everlasting time, not divided into past, present and future. linear time is called "zaman"in arabic.
See abu ali ad-daqqaq.
'Ali ibn 'umar, from dar al-qutn, a part of baghdad. he was an unrivalled scholar in his era. he had knowledge of traditions and weaknesses and the names of the men and their states in integrity, truthfulness and knowledge of the schools of the fugaha'. he was born in 306/918 and died in 385/995. he has many books, including a hadith collection, as-sunan, and al-istidrak which is about the weakness of some hadiths in al-bukhari. he also has one of the first books on the gira'at.
Abu' l-barakat ahmad b. Muhammad al- `adawi al-maliki, who died in 1201/1786-7. he wrote ash-shark as-saghir `ala aqrab al-masalik.
Mulay al-'arabi, (1150/1737 - 1239/1823), the nineteenth century mujaddid or renewer of sufism in the maghrib. he was considered to be the qutb. he was the founder of the darqawi branch of the shadhiliya. his letters to his disciples contain rules of conduct, instructions and core teachings of the tariqa, elucidating and simplifying the teachings of his shaykh, sidi `ali al-jamal (d. 11934/1779-80).
Abu Muhammad `abdullah ibn `abdu'r-rahman attamimi, born in samarqand in 181/797-8 and died there in 255/869. he travelled widely in search of knowledge and was known for his integrity and scrupulousness. his students included muslim, abu dawud, at-tirmidhi and an-nasa'i. he was appointed gadi of samarqand, judged one case and then resigned. he has a sunan.
"The five essential values": religion, life, intellect, lineage, and property. the objectives (maqasid) of the shari`a involve the promotion and protection of these values. the principle of masalih mursala is based on achieving the realisation of these values.
"The white pearl", a term designating the first intellect.
Shams ad-din Muhammad b. ahmad al-maliki, (d. 1230/1815). he wrote a gloss (hashiya) on ahmad ad-dardir's work.
Correct behaviour, both inward and outward, good deportment. it is the deep courtesy observed in acts of worship as the person is aware that he is constantly dependent on and in the presence of Allah.
Correct behaviour, both inward and outward, good deportment.
The duties of the judge.
Adab of qur'an recitation
The adab of qur'an recitation includes the following: the intention should be sincerely for Allah and not to please others; the reciter must be pure in body, clothes and place; one begins by seeking refuge with Allah; it should be done with fear and humility and distinct pronunciation, and with awareness of the meanings of what is being recited; the recitation should be neither too soft nor too loud.
The first human being, created by God as His vicegerent (responsible deputy) on Earth. Muslims believe Adam was the first prophet of God as well, establishing monotheism as the original spiritual system of humankind. Islam does not share with Christianity the doctrine of "Original Sin," instead maintaining that each individual person is born sinless and is responsible for his or her own spiritual state, independent of the actions of other persons, past or present.
Muhammad ibn ahmad, great turkoman muslim scholar, born in damascus in 673/1274, who wrote a hundred books, including siyar a'lam an-nubala'. he records the biographies of the narrators of hadith. he died in damascus in 748/1347.
See `id al-adha.
The call to prayer.
The Muslim call to worship. The adhan consists of specific phrases, recited aloud in Arabic prior to each of the five daily worship times. Upon hearing the adhan, Muslims discontinue all activity and assemble at a local masjid for formal communal worship.
(AADHAN ADHAAN AZAN)
The call for the daily prayers are called Adhan. The person who calls the Adhan is called a Mu'adhin. A Mu'adhin calls the Adhan five times a day before Muslims are to perform their daily Salah (Prayer).
The Adhan is composed of specific words and phrases to be recited loudly in the Arabic language so that the neighbors can recognize the time schedule for the prayers.
Litterateur, writer, essayist. it denotes- someone who is characterised by adab, meaning either someone well-disciplined, or, more frequently, someone skilled in literary accomplishments.
Someone who is characterised by adab, someone well-disciplined.
Plural of dalil, proofs, items of evidence.
Logical proofs or evidence.
Justice and equity. A fundamental value governing all social behaviour and forming the basis of all social dealings and legal framework.
The acts, of Allah.
Time, from afaq, "horizons". afaqi time describes time in the created world of human daily life.