Prophet Mohammed: A Pioneer of the Environment


"There is none amongst the believers who plants a tree, or sows a seed, and then a bird, or a person, or an animal eats thereof, but it is regarded as having given a charitable gift [for which there is great recompense]."[Al-Bukhari, III:513]. 

The idea of the Prophet Mohammed as a pioneer of environmentalism will initially strike many as strange: indeed, the term "environment" and related concepts like "ecology", "environmental awareness" and "sustainability", are modern-day inventions, terms that were formulated in the face of the growing concerns about the contemporary state of the natural world around us. 

And yet a closer reading of the hadith, the body of work that recounts significant events in the Prophet's life, reveals that he was a staunch advocate of environmental protection. One could say he was an "environmentalist avant la lettre", a pioneer in the domain of conservation, sustainable development and resource management, and one who constantly sought to maintain a harmonious balance between man and nature. From all accounts of his life and deeds, we read that the Prophet had a profound respect for fauna and flora, as well as an almost visceral connection to the four elements, earth, water, fire and air. 

He was a strong proponent of the sustainable use and cultivation of land and water, proper treatment of animals, plants and birds, and the equal rights of users. In this context the modernity of the Prophet's view of the environment and the concepts he introduced to his followers is particularly striking; certain passages of the hadith could easily be mistaken for discussions about contemporary environmental issues. 

Three Principles 

The Prophet's environmental philosophy is first of all holistic: it assumes a fundamental link and interdependency between all natural elements and bases its teachings on the premise that if man abuses or exhausts one element, the natural world as a whole will suffer direct consequences. This belief is nowhere formulated in one concise phrase; it is rather an underlying principle that forms the foundation of all the Prophet's actions and words, a life philosophy that defined him as a person. 

The three most important principles of the Prophet's philosophy of nature are based on the Qur'anic teachings and the concepts of tawhid (unity), khalifa (stewardship) and amana (trust). 

Tawhid, the oneness of God, is a cornerstone of the Islamic faith. It recognizes the fact that there is one absolute Creator and that man is responsible to Him for all his actions: "To God belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth, for God encompasses everything [4:126]."The Prophet acknowledges that God's knowledge and power covers everything. Therefore abusing one of his creations, whether it is a living being or a natural resource, is a sin. The Prophet considered all of God's creations to be equal before God and he believed animals, but also land, forests and watercourses should have rights. 

The concepts of khalifa, stewardship, and amana, trust, emerge from the principle of tawhid. The Qur'an explains that mankind holds a privileged position among God's creations on earth: he is chosen as khalifa, "vice-regent" and carries the responsibility of caring for God's earthly creations. Each individual is given this task and privilege in the form of God's trust. But the Qur'an repeatedly warns believers against arrogance: they are no better than other creatures. "No creature is there on earth nor a bird flying with its wings but they are nations like you [6:38]"; "Surely the creation of the heavens and the earth is greater than the creation of man; but most people know not [40:57]". 

The Prophet believed that the universe and the creations in it - animals, plants, water, land - were not created for mankind. Man is allowed to use the resources but he can never own them. Thus while Islam allows land ownership, it has limitations: an owner can, for example, only own land if he uses it; once he ceases to use it, he has to part with his possession. 

The Prophet recognized man's responsibility to God but always maintained humility. Thus he said: "When doomsday comes, if someone has a palm shoot in his hand, he should plant it," suggesting that even when all hope is lost for mankind, one should sustain nature's growth. He believed that nature remains a good in itself, even if man does not benefit from it. 

Similarly, the Prophet incited believers to share the earth's resources. He said: "Muslims share alike in three things - water, herbage and fire," and he considered it a sin to withhold water from the thirsty. "No one can refuse surplus water without sinning against Allah and against man" [Mishkat al Masabih]. 

The Prophet's attitude towards sustainable use of land, conservation of water and the treatment of animals is a further illustration of the humility of his environmental philosophy. 

Sustainable Use of Land 

"The earth has been created for me as a mosque and as a means of purification." [Al-Bukhari I:331] With these words the Prophet emphasizes the sacred nature of earth or soil, not only as a pure entity but also as a purifying agent. This reverence towards soil is also demonstrated in the ritual of tayammum, or "dry wudu" which permits the use of dust in the performance of ritual purification before prayer when water is not available. 

The Prophet saw earth as subservient to man, but recognised that it should not be overexploited or abused, and that it had rights, like the trees and wildlife living on it. In order to protect land, forests and wildlife, the Prophet created inviolable zones known as hima and haram, in which resources were to be left untouched. Both are still in use today: haram areas are often drawn up around wells and water sources to protect the groundwater table from over-pumping. Hima applies particularly to wildlife and forestry and usually designates an area of land where grazing and woodcutting are restricted, or where certain animal species are protected. 

The Prophet not only encouraged the sustainable use of fertile lands, he also told his followers of the benefits of making unused land productive: planting a tree, sowing a seed and irrigating dry land were all regarded as charitable deeds. "Whoever brings dead land to life, that is, cultivates wasteland, for him is a reward therein." Thus any person who irrigates a plot of "dead", or desert land becomes its rightful owner. 

Conservation of Water 

In the harsh desert environment where the Prophet lived, water was synonymous to life. Water was a gift from God, the source of all life on earth as is testified in the Qur'an: "We made from water every living thing"[21:30]. The Qur'an constantly reminds believers that they are but the guardians of God's creation on earth and that they should never take this creation for granted: "Consider the water which you drink. Was it you that brought it down from the rain cloud or We? If We had pleased, We could make it bitter"[56:68-70]. 

Saving water and safeguarding its purity were two important issues for the Prophet: we have seen that his concern about the sustainable use of water led to the creation of haram zones in the vicinity of water sources. But even when water was abundant, he advocated thriftiness: thus he recommended that believers perform wudu no more than three times, even if they were near to a flowing spring or river. The theologian El-Bukhari added: "The men of science disapprove of exaggeration and also of exceeding the number of ablutions of the Prophet." The Prophet also warned against water pollution by forbidding urination in stagnant water. 

The Treatment of Animals: 

"If anyone wrongfully kills even a sparrow, let alone anything greater, he will face God's interrogation" [Mishkat al Masabih]. These words reflect the great reverence, respect and love that the Prophet always showed towards animals. He believed that as part of God's creation, animals should be treated with dignity, and the hadith contains a large collection of traditions, admonitions and stories about his relationship to animals. It shows that he had particular consideration for horses and camels: to him they were valiant companions during journey and battle, and he found great solace and wisdom in their presence as the following tradition reveals: "In the forehead of horses are tied up welfare and bliss until the Day of Resurrection."

Even in the slaughter of animals, the Prophet showed great gentleness and sensitivity. While he did not practice vegetarianism, the hadiths clearly show that the Prophet was extremely sensitive to the suffering of animals, almost as though he shared their pain viscerally. Thus he recommends using sharp knives and a good method so that the animal can die a quick death with as little pain as possible. He also warned against slaughtering an animal in the presence of other animals, or letting the animal witness the sharpening of blades: to him that was equal to "slaughtering the animal twice "and he emphatically condemned such practices as "abominable". 

Conclusion 

It is impossible to do justice to the full scope and significance of Prophet Mohammed's environmental philosophy in this short article. His holistic view of nature and his understanding of man's place within the natural world pioneered environmental awareness within the Muslim community. 

Sadly, the harmony that the Prophet advocated between man and his environment has today all too often been lost. As we face the effects of pollution and overexploitation, desertification and water scarcity in some parts of the world and floods and violent storms elsewhere, it is perhaps time for the world community as a whole, Muslims, Christians and Jews, Hindus and Buddhists, atheists and agnostics, to take a leaf out of the Prophet's book and address the current environmental crisis seriously and wisely.


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  4 Comments   Comment

  1. Uncle Logic from UK

    Not so nice to dogs mind you, snakes with white markings on their backs.

    People should put up lots of articles like this in Muslim countries where speceies extinction is high.

  2. Hyder from UK

    It is indeed to a very good article. Infact since ages these practices were being practiced and also transfered over generations. But it is true that, the modern terms like environmentalism, sustainability has taken over. In the wake of environmental issues thisis an opportunity to explore what Quran says and what prophet had practiced. Good one, I am trying to make an Abstract of it.

  3. Babandi A.Gumel from U.K

    The enviromentalists would think that he was one of them for what he did to the enviroments be it friend of the earth or whatever title we may give him stating clearly the Prophet was that.

    Similarly for his concern for the welfare of the animals like the two famous Ahadith one regarding

    the good pious woman who despite her piety kept a cat tied without letting her to find food.In the end the cat died due to this she was sent to hell fire.Another incident of the bad woman (harlot) who was thirsty and drew some water for herself from a well to quench her thirst. Then she saw a dog panting realising that the dog must also be thirsty and she drew out the same water from the welll and gave it to the dog because of this Allah was pleased and she was made to enter Paradise.So both the campaigners animal rights welafrists and enviromentalists and all other campaigners might think that the Prophet was one of them for his concern.Yes definitely he was concerned for all these things because he was sent as a Mercy to the entire Humanity.The fact of the matter remains the same as he retains his title as Muhammadur Rasulullah (S.A.W)and remains the same up to Qiamah.Wama Arsalnaka Illa Rahmatan Lill Alameen.This is his title.The problem with the Ummah now a days we take some part of Deen that suits us and then

    say Rasulullah was such and such quoting the Ayah or any Hadith of the Prophet to match our desires.The Prophet said you will not be a true believer unless our desires are subjected to the Deen which our dear Rasulullah brought.This is what is called real Imaan which the Ummah needs.

    The purpose of Deen is to be saved from fire of Jahannam and be made to enter Paradise then we are successful.Yes we have to care for the enviroment the animals and whatever but they are not the main purpose of our lives.The pupose as we all know is to worship Allah and follow the Sunnah of Rasulullah throughout our lives Allah will be pleased with us for our good intention.

  4. Abdul Momin from India

    Indeed the correct way of understanding the real Islam is to refer to the Holy Quran as the basis for all knowledge and then understanding the Sunnah and Hadith in its light. Anything that cannot be linked back to the Quran cannot be declared an integral part of Islam. We must be very careful when we assume that something is or is not part of Islam. Allah has protected the Holy Book for this very purpose that no matter how much time passes the word of Allah remains pure and provides guidance to those who truly want to submit to his will and stay on course to becoming true Muslims. http://www.quransunnat.com