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|Topic: Ja'far ibn Muhammad (a.s.)|
Joined: 17 November 2012
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| Topic: Ja'far ibn Muhammad (a.s.)
Posted: 23 March 2014 at 12:44am
Name: Ja'far ibn Muhammad (a.s.)
Mother: Umm Farwa, the daughter of Qasim bin Muhammad bin Abu Bakr.
Kunniyat (Patronymic): Abu 'Abdillah.
Laqab (Title): Al-Sadiq.
Birth: He was born at Madina in 83 A.H.
Martyrdom: He died of poison in 148 A.H. and is buried at Baqi near his father.
Birth of Imam Sadiq(as):
The sun of the existence of Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS) arose from the lap of his mother Umm-e-Farwah on the 17th of Rabiul Awal, 83rd year Hijrah, in the city of Madina. Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS) has the same birth date as that of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW).
Family Backgroung of Imam jafar Sadiq(as):
Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS) has three titles; they are: As-Sadiq, Al-Fadil, At-Tahir
His father Imam Muhammad Baqir (AS) was much happy and pleased by the birth of his son. His mother Umm-e-Farwah was the grand daughter of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, who was one of the companions of Imam Ali (AS). Imam Ali (AS) repeatedly said about him that, "Muhammad is my spiritual and moral son." Asma Bint Umais was the mother of Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, and she was considered to be a pious woman. She was continuously in the service of Hazrat Fatima Zahra (SA) and took pride in it. After the martyrdom of her husband jafar ibn Abi Talib in the Battle of Mu’tah, Asma Bint Umais married Abu Bakr Siddiq and after his death, married to Imam Ali (AS).
Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS) said about her mother, "My mother was one of the pious, faithful and devoted women." Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS) was 15 years of age when his grandfather Imam Sajjad (AS) was martyred and 34 years old when his father Imam Muhammad Baqir (AS) was martyred.
Consequent upon the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (AS) the government of Bani Umayyah was shaken which turned the people into their enemy and pessimist about them. This opened the avenue for the formation of Bani Abbasid government. The gap in between these two powers opened the way for the propagation of Shiia ideology and school of thought. Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS) could, through a learning movement, propagate the learning’s of Islam in such a way to extend and make it reach all the people in the World.
Characteristic of Imam jafar Sadiq (as):
The Characteristic distinctions of Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS)We all know that the conduct of men is the reflection of their inner character and everyone can be recognized by his conduct.
There are only a very few people who do not spill out their conduct and whatever they have in their interior and do not exhibit it. Whatever they have in their hearts kindles the exterior of the electric lamp like an electric switch.
Whole of the life of Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS), like the other Imams (AS), was the enlightened lesson of the real and true Islam. He himself was considered to be the example and specimen of the Islamic ethic, moral and conduct.
You cannot find a father and a son among all the people, of all the tribes who may resemble each other from all the angles of ideas, thoughts, character and conduct. But the family of the Prophet of Islam (PBUH) and his successors all were on the same line and performed their heavenly duty with one aim, one ideology, and did not have any kind of difference in speech, character and ethical conduct.
Ethical value and virtue of Imam Sadiq jafar (as)
About the ethical value and virtue of Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS), it is sufficient that out of four thousands of his students even a single one did not object or criticize upon the moral character and conduct of Imam jafar as Sadiq (AS), and did not find a weak point in it. He was a practical example and specimen for the Muslims with respect to eating, relaxing and resting, walking, speaking, and conducts with others. He had the same social conduct with his friends as he had with his children.
During the Imamate of the sixth Imam greater possibilities and a more favorable climate existed for him to propagate religious teachings. This came about as a result of revolts in Islamic lands, especially the uprising of the Muswaddah to overthrow the Umayyad caliphate, and the bloody wars which finally led to the fall and extinction of the Umayyads. The greater opportunities for Shi'ite teachings were also a result of the favorable ground the fifth Imam had prepared during the twenty years of his Imamate through the propagation of the true teachings of Islam and the sciences of the Household of the Prophet (sawas).
The Imam took advantage of the occasion to propagate the religious sciences until the very end of his Imamate, which was contemporary with the end of the Umayad, and beginning of the Abbasid caliphates. He instructed many scholars in different fields of the intellectual and transmitted sciences, such as Zararah, Muhammad ibn Muslim, Mu'min Taqi, Hisham ibn Hakam, Aban ibn Taghlib, Hisham ibn Salim, Hurayz, Hisham Kalbi Nassabah, and Jabir ibn Hayyan, the alchemist. Even some important Sunni scholars such as Sufyan Thawri, Abu Hanifah, the founder of the Hanafi school of law, Qadi. l Sukuni, Qadi Abu'l-Bakhtari, and others, had the honour of being his students. It is said that his classes and sessions of instruction produced four thousand scholars of hadith and other sciences. The number of traditions preserved from the fifth and sixth Imams is more than all the hadith that have been recorded from the Prophet (sawas) and the other ten Imams combined.
Towards the end of his life the Imam was subjected to severe restrictions by the Abbasid caliph Mansur, who ordered such torture and merciless killing of many of the descendants of the Prophet (sawas) who were Shi'ite that his actions even surpassed the cruelty and heedlessness of the Umayyads. On his order they were arrested in groups, some thrown into deep and dark prisons and tortured until they died, while others were beheaded or buried alive or placed at the base of or between walls of buildings, and walls were constructed over them.
Hisham, the Umayyad caliph, had ordered the sixth Imam to be arrested and brought to Damascus. Later, the Imam was arrested by Saffah., the Abbasid caliph, and brought to Iraq. Finally, Mansur had him arrested again and brought to Samarrah where he had the Imam kept under supervision, was in every way harsh and discourteous to him, and several times thought of killing him. Eventually the Imam was allowed-to return to Medina where he spent the rest of his life in hid-ing, until he was poisoned and martyred through the intrigue of Mansur.
Upon hearing the news of the imam's martyrdom, Mansur wrote to the governor of Medina instructing him to go to the house of the Imam on the pretext of expressing his condolences to the family, to ask for the Imam's will and testament and read it. Whoever was chosen by the Imam as his inheritor and successor should be beheaded on the spot. Of course the aim of Mansur was to put an end to the whole question of the Imamate and to Shi'ite aspirations. When the governor of Medina following orders, read the last will and testament. He learnt that the Imam had chosen four people rather than one to administer his last will and testament: the caliph himself, the governor of Medina, 'Abdallah Aftah., the Imam's older son and Musa, his younger son. In this way the plot of Mansur failed.
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|Posted: 23 March 2014 at 1:10am|
Imam Zainul-Abideen (a.s)
In the period of the second caliph "Ummer", the Muslims conquered Iran. The daughters of Yazdgard were brought to Madina. All had gathered in the mosque of Madina to see what was the decision of the caliph, about them. He wanted to sell them but Imam Ali (A.S.) stopped him from doing so and said to Urnmer, "leave the girls free so that they marry whosoever they wish."
One of the girls chose Hussain Ibn-e-Ali (A.S.) and the other chose Imam Hassan Mujtaba (A.S.). Imam Ali (A.S.) said to Hussain, "Look after this woman very well, because, from her an Imam will come into existence (born) who will be the best of the God's creations upon the earth and the father of all the Imams (after himself). Not very long after that the sun of his existence arose, on Thursday, the 5th of Shaaban, 38th Hijrah, in Madina. He was named "Ali" later on titled as Zain-ul-Abidin (the decoration of the worshippers) and Sajjad (one who performs much prostration).
The Ethical and Moral Characteristics of Imam (A.S.)
1. Piety and Abstinence:
One of the special features of Imam's character was his piety and abstinence. Imam Jaffar Sadiq (A.S.) said, "Ali Ibn-ul-Hussain (A.S.) resembled most of all the sons of Bani Hashim, with Ali (A.S.)".
His son Imam Mohammad Baqir (A.S.) said, "One day I happened to see my father, I saw him (completely) immersed and (thoroughly pre occupied) in the prayers and with all the attention towards God. His color was faded and his eyes were sore and red due to weeping, his feet were swollen by (prostration) and legs, and knees had developed corns. I said humbly "Oh father, why do you loose your self control during the prayers and put yourself in such an inconvenience and discomfort.
My father wept and said, "Oh son however and whatsoever amount of prayers I perform even then it is meager and very little as compared to the prayers of your grandfather, "Ali Ibn-e-Abi Talib." Taous Yamni says, I saw Imam lying in prostration saying, "Oh God your servant, needy towards you, is in your house waiting for your blessing, forgiveness and favor".
2. Attention to the life and training of people:
Imam Zain-ul-Abidin (A.S.), like his grandfather, was busy in cultivating land and palm date orchards. He offered two Rakat of prayer near each palm date tree. During the prayers he would get himself so absorbed that he did not have any attention towards anything except God. He traveled to Mecca, on foot, twenty times. And continuously guided and conducted people through the attractive melody of the Qur'anic verses.
All the human qualities and attributes were collectively present in his personality. He was the complete specimen of tolerance, forgiveness and self-sacrifice. He looked after and administrated hundreds of houses of the poor and hunger stricken. Daily a number of goats were slaughtered in his house and he distributed all their meat among the afflicted. He dressed the naked and dress less ones and paid their debts and loans. But he himself took simple meals and put on simple dress.
A person came to Ali Ibn-ul-Hussain (A.S.) and started addressing him with filthy and abusive language. Imam (A.S.) turned his face towards him without the slightest anger and quarrel or strife and said, "Oh brother, if what you say is right and correct and these vices are present in me then God may pardon and forgive my sin. And if you are telling a lie then God may forgive you and pardon your sin."
The man was very much ashamed and asked Imam (A.S.) to pardon him. Abu Hamza Somali who was one of the friends of Imam (A.S.) asked his servant to briefly define the character and morals of Imam (A.S.). He said so, "I am at his service for so many years. Whatever I saw was righteousness, piety and purity.
My lord helps and assists the people and solves their problems, with all the difficulties worries and pre occupations that he himself faces. Zaid bin Usama was lying on the deathbed. Imam Sajjad (A.S.) visited him, Zaid was weeping. When Imam (A.S.) asked him the reason of his weeping he said, "I have to pay fifteen thousand Dinnars as my loan and debt and my wealth is not so much as to pay off the debt." Imam said, "Do not weep and be contented, I will pay all of your loan."
When the nights would become dark and all the people went to sleep, Imam Sajjad (A.S.) would get up put the food in a sack and on his shoulder. He covered his face so that he is not recognized. Then he took that food to the houses of the inflicted and have-nots and gave it to them.He administrated and looked after nearly a hundred guardians less family in Madina, most of them comprised indigent, helpless and crippled, handicapped and paralytic ones.
What a surprise! None of these families knew that Imam Zain-ul-Abidin (A.S.) was the one who managed and run their lives. But after his death, when the aids were discontinued they came to know that Imam (A.S.) was their helper and friend.
Accompanying and keeping pace with his father
He was beside his father right from the moment of his migration towards Karbala and followed his father. Imam Hussain (A.S.) step by step so that, when his father asked for help on the day of Ashoora he got up to extend help to his father. But Hazrat Zainab (S.A.) stopped him and said, "You are the only memorial remnant of this family and the Imam after Imam Hussain (A.S.) and you are the guardian of all of us. Your divine mission is to convey the message of the martyrs to the people.
Although a segment of the people who are unaware consider the Imam to be a sick, invalid, handicapped and weak person. But they are seriously mistaken because the illness of Imam was an expedience and policy of God, so that he may remain safe from the harm of the enemy's sword, and become the living history of Karbala.
Therefore, after the martyrdom of Imam Hussain (A.S.) and his companions Shimar came into the encampment of Imam along with a group of murderers of Bani Ommayide so that he may kill the remaining ones of the camp of Imam Hussain (A.S.). Since he was ill, Shimar's companions objected upon him and Umer Saad came after them and reprimanded Shimar regarding this decision and turned him out of the encampment. And said, "He is an ill man and cannot do a thing, leave him alone."
The movement of Imam (A.S.) and his clamor begins
Imam (A.S.) who along with the left behind families of martyrs was besieged by the enemy, came out on the morning of 11th Moharram, the 61st Hijrah. They had chained his hands and feet and placed the heads of the martyrs in front of him so that his sorrow and grief is increased.
There is no doubt about it that if Imam was not there in Karbala to see all the crimes of Yazeed from a close quarter and convey it to the people of Kufa and Syria, Bani Ommayide would not have become defamed and disgraced to that extent. The family of Hussain (A.S.), as against the concept of a foolish and silly group who think they were defeated, where ever they set foot, they would announce the success of their revolution and the defeat of Yazeed. What more and superb conquest could be imagined about, than this that the enemy was highly afraid of them. Where ever they opened their lips to speak people would manifest their feelings and emotions and paid them respect and homage and rebuked, reproached, and cursed their enemies.
Imam's Speech in Kufa
When the carvan of the prisoners reached Kufa and all the people were keenly trying to see the prisoners. Imam (A.S.) noticed that Kufis did not recognize them otherwise they were not that indifferent. Therefore, Imam by his hand gave the people the signal to keep quiet. All of them adopted silence and lent ears to him. Suddenly the memorial of Hussain (Imam) opened his lips and said, "Oh the people of Kufa! I am the son of Hussain (A.S.), I am Ali the son of Ali (A.S.), Fatimah (S.A.) and Prophet (P.B.U.H.). I am the son of that Imam (A.S.) whose sons were killed and his properties looted and plundered and his family held prisoners before you. You wrote invitation letters to my father.
When he came towards you, you killed him. What will you reply to God and his Prophet (P.B.U.H.) on the justice day. You did not observe the honor and sanctity of your Prophet (P.B.U.H.) annoyed his soul. Woe to you, what a bad people you are."
Imam (A.S.) arose and alerted the sleeping consciences by these statements and addresses broke and tore the hearts and rolled the tears out of the eyes and changed the celebrations and joys of Bani Ommayide into a sorrow and grief.
In the Court of Ibn-e-Ziad
Keeping in view the reports of the officials about the turmoil and disturbance of the Kufa city, Ibn-e-Ziad ordered that they (Prisoners) must be brought to the court, as soon as possible. The unclean, dirty, obnoxious and ostentatious son of Ziad held a grand aggregation comprising of all the nobles, notable, dignitaries of Kufa to show off his power to them. And threaten and intimidate them so that in future they do not pluck the courage of uttering any words. Others should know that whosoever opposes, shall meet the same fate. Thus they showed the remaining (family) of Imam Hussain (A.S.) in and all those present there gazed and looked at them. They were looking on at them with amazement; none of them took any notice of Ibn-e-Ziad, the killer of Kufa.
The son of Ziad was furious and enraged and wanted to show disrespect to them. But he could not dare it. Hazrat Imam Sajjad (A.S.) addressed him saying "Oh the son of Ziad! Today you are sitting on the seat and throne of Power and the sons of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) are standing before you. Do not think you have any value in our eyes. These words proved so much effective that the ruler of Kufa lost his wits and was stunned and started using foul and rotten language and threatened them. Thereafter, he ordered that Imam Sajjad (A.S.) be slain, but due to the hue and cry of the prisoners and the objection of those present he refrained from it. But Imam (A.S.) addressed him saying: "You scare me from death. You must know that being killed and slain is our habit and martyrdom is our nobility and generosity."
Ibn-e-Ziad did not know what to do and what to say. He did not have any alternative except to order the prisoners be taken away from the assembly as soon as possible.
In The Court of Yazeed
The family, kith and kin of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.), which were tired and exhausted, grieved and sorrowful, was all tied up with one single rope and were brought into the court and assembly of Yazeed. They adopted the same conduct and behavior with Yazeed, which they had previously shown towards Ibn-e-Ziad. None of them gave any attention and took any notice of Yazeed. Thereby, Imam (A.S.) raised his head and said, "You, who claim to be Muslim, say, what would the Prophet (P.B.U.H) do with you and say to you if he sees us in this condition that you have taken us prisoners."
This strong sentence of Imam (A.S.) made those present on the occasion weep and Yazeed was embarrassed and bewildered and at once ordered the ropes to be let loose and open.
Then he started ill speaking and vilification. So, at once the children of Imam Hussain (A.S.) and Imam Sajjad (A.S.) resisted and withstood him and delivered speeches, which dishonored and disgraced his lineage and family. It came to it, that from inside his haram sarai (women's apartment) a noise of objection, protest and crying raised. These shootings and voices of crying, and protests each one was striking upon the head of Yazeed like, as if it was a hammer.
And that woke him up from the deep slumber and sleep of drunkenness. He knew that if he detained the remaining of the family of Prophet (P.B.U.H.) for another few moments a revolt will start and his life will come to an end. He saw himself drowned in the ocean of the protest, objections, fury and anger of the people. He looked this way and that way to find a way out to get himself cleared off the crimes.
Suddenly, he shouted and said, "curse of God be upon Ibn-e-Ziad. I was not in favor of killing Hussain (A.S.) and taking his remaining family as prisoners. But then it was all over and water had crossed the bridges and all the people knew that he himself was the real criminal.
So he at once ordered the officials to take the prisoners to a place which had been provided in advance for them, so that he is not faced with any further shame and disgrace. They stationed the family of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) in an unsuitable place. But they did not sit silent and quiet even there and whenever they laid their hands upon any chance they did inform the people about the crimes of Yazeed. So much so that the three years old daughter of Imam Hussain (A.S.) named Rukkia took part and played a role in this combat and campaign.
Imam (A.S.) in Syria's Mosque
One day, Yazeed arranged and organized a grand aggregation and assembly in the mosque of Damascus (Syria) the seat of his power and government, to cover and make good his defeats. He ordered his ostentatious speakers to praise him and take liberty and adopt presumptuous attitude towards the family of Prophet (P.B.U.H.) and use foul and abusive language. So that he may make the people optimist as regards to his crime and manifest the children of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) as if (God forbid) at fault, and to belittle them in the eyes of he people.
Imam Sajjad (A.S.) was sitting in a corner of the assembly and listening to the speech of the speaker of Yazeed when he praised Yazeed and used abusive language about the family and lineage of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.). Imam (AS.) shouted loudly at him saying. "Woe to you oh dishonest agent! You have raised the anger and enraged God and provided hell for yourself to please and make Yazeed happy.
Then he turned his face towards Yazeed and said, "Allow me to climb up these wooden (step of tribune) to speak and make the Almighty God and people happy."
In the beginning Yazeed did not pay heed to him but those present asked him to allow and give permission to him. So he was obliged to give him permission but there was a huge tempest going on in his heart as to what will finally happen? Imam (A.S.) got himself seated up on the tribune and after the praise of God and thank giving to God said, "Oh people! God has bestowed upon us wisdom, knowledge, fortitude, forbearance, bravery, faith and piety. Be informed that the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) of Islam, Ali (A.S.) and Jaffar-e-Tayyar are ours. Hamza, the chief of martyrs, Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain (A.S.) who were the beloved ones of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) are from (among) us.
All of a sudden the people were shocked and moved, the hearts started beating fast in the chests and they focused their eyes upon Imam (A.S.). They were astonished and said to themselves what a surprise they had told us that these are Kharijis (a group of rebellions and mutinous who was ousted from the religion) who have stood up against the government. That means they lied to us. These are the best of the creations of God on the earth. The sentences (of Imam [A.S.]), which followed, made the people more informed. The Imam (A.S.) said, "I am the son of Mecca and Mina, I am the son of Zam Zam and Safa (that meant all of these were connected to them).
I am the son of the one who ascended to the skies (Meraj), I am the son of the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) of God. I am the son of Ali Murtaza (A.S.), I am the son of Fatima (S.A.). I am the son of Hussain (A.S.) who (they) killed in the Karbala without any fault and sin." All of a sudden, people burst into a huge noise of crying and weeping. Yazeed saw himself besieged. He yelled, "Oh Muezzin (caller to the prayer), call the Azzan (call to the prayer).
The voice of Allah-o-Akber was raised. Imam said, 'Nothing is greater than God." The Muezzin said, "I witness to it that there is no God except the God." Imam said, "My flesh, skin and bones do attest and stand witness to it." The Muezzin said, "I give witness to it that Mohammad (P.B.U.H) is the Prophet of God." Imam said, "Oh the caller for prayers Muezzin, for the sake of the same Prophet (P.B.U.H.) whose name you are calling stop for a while!!! Then he turned towards Yazeed and said, "Oh Yazeed this Prophet (P.B.U.H.) whose name is being called, is my grandfather or yours? If you say he was yours you have told a lie. And if you say he was my grandfather then why did you kill his sons in Karbala and take his children prisoners."
When Yazeed saw that he was unable to reply, he at once stood up to offer his prayer, for deceiving the people. Imam (A.S.) walked out of the mosque, along with a group of Syrians, as a protest. These words and sentences proved so effective that Yazeed was obliged and forced to send the Ahl al-Bayt (member of the Prophet [P.B.U.H.] family) respectfully and graciously to Madina. Following these protests, hue and cry and turmoil, anger, and hate of the people, the flags of revolution against yazeed and government of Bani Ommayide were hoisted.
It was clear that the pivot and nucleus of the movement was the movement of Imam Sajjad (A.S.). A turmoil and revolt against Yazeed took shape in Madina. He decided to stop the movement by means of massacre and mass killings. But it was all in vain. Therefore, he sent his forces to Madina under the command of a dirty and wicked man named Muslim bin Aqba delegating him complete powers. He, along with his soldiers, kept attacking the house of the people for a period of three days. They plundered and looted the wealth of the people, and killed approximately ten thousand of them. But it either did not have any effect. Thereafter, Yazeed did not spend a single day happily and every moment he was getting closer to his death.
Finally, the dark, and black file of his life was closed in the year 64 Hijrah. He died and his son Muawiyah-II succeeded him. But after forty days time he resigned his post and abandoned the throne due to his father's crimes and disgrace of his lineage and family. Abdullah Ibn-e-Zubair who had been lustful and greedy for power for many long years arose in Mecca and took hold and control of the government. Marwan grasped the seat of power in Syria. The war of power started and each one of the two got himself prepared for the annihilation of the other. After a short period Marwan died and his son Abdul Malik was enthroned in his father's place. After gaining power, he besieged Mecca in the year 73 Hijrah and killed Abdullah bin Zubair.
Abdul Malik was a man; base and miser man and he did not have any human quality and mercy. So that one day he told Mussabbab, "I dislike good deeds and works." One of his great crimes was to empower "Hajjaj bin Yousuf in Kufa and Basra, who was notorious for his mercilessness, cruelty, and brutality. He in a short span of time martyred one hundred and twenty thousand friends of Imam Ali (A.S.) and imprisoned a large segment of them. Abdul Malik was extremely vigilant regarding Hazrat Sajjad (A.S.) and he was after an excuse to arrest him (A.S.). As a result, he arrested him and brought him to Syria (Damascus). But due to the revolt and turmoil of the people, he was forced to send him back to Madina.
The Event of Imam (A.S.) and Hasham
After committing crimes for many long years, Abdul Malik passed away and his son hasham was enthroned in his father's place. One day, he traveled to Mecca in the Hajj season so as to perform Hajj (as per his own version). That was to deceive the simple-minded people. He wanted to perform circumambulation but he could not do it, because there was such a big and huge gathering. So he was forced to sit in a corner to wait for the huge crowd and gathering to get thin.
All of a sudden Imam Sajjad (A.S.) arrived to the Haram and people recited benediction for him, and cleared the way for him. He, after performing circumambulation moved towards the Hajar ul Aswad (the black stone) to rub his hand on it. Hasham witnessed this scene and was greatly annoyed and uncomfortable. He said with carelessness and inattentively "who is this man"? "I do not know him?"
Farzdak who was a freedom-loving poet at once turned his face towards Hasham and said, "Oh Hasham I am surprised why you do not recognize him? If you do not know him, I know him very well. Listen, so that I introduce him to you." He is someone that the land of Mecca and the House of the God know him. "He is the one whose grandfather is the Prophet (P.B.U.H.) of Islam. God keeps on bestowing his benediction and blessings upon them continuously.
He is the son of the best of the servants of God. He is that famous and well known pious. When you say you do not know him this thing does not harm him. If you do not know him (so what) the Arab and Ajam (Non Arab World) knows him." Hasham was very enraged and got highly flared up by the words of Farzdak, and ordered him to be imprisoned. The Imam (A.S.) sent him a gift in the prison and appreciated his inconveniences. One day he got freed from the prison.
Hazrat Sajjad (A.S.) and the Sahifa-e-Sajjadia
When the Imam got stuck in a tight corner and was virtually besieged he was obliged to state his objects and motive in the form of the prayers. These prayers have been compiled in the shape of a book named "Sahifa-e-Sajjadia." This is an ocean of topics and objects of science, mathematics, physics, astronomy, social and political sciences and ethics. Obviously and apparently this is a book of prayers. But, in fact, this is the expression of fact, pains, and difficulties. We present here a few sentences of it as a specimen.
1. Oh God! I take asylum and refuge with you from the revolt, and rebellious (attitude) refractoriness, of the anger and jealousy and the scarcity of patience, and extravagance and intemperance in life.
Oh God! Keep me alive till my life is led in your service and obedience and when it becomes the pasture and meadow of Satan, take me towards yourself and take my life."
2. Oh sons! Respect you father and mother because if the father was not there you would not have come into existence. Look at the mother that she looks after you with all of her existence (energies). She is not afraid of it that she herself remains hungry and feeds you. She herself remains cloth less (without dress) and covers (dresses) you. She remains in the sun and places you in the Shadow. You cannot thank her. This is God who has the power of thanking her (giving her the reward).
3. Watch over and attend your child because his good or bad (virtues) are related and connected to you and you are responsible for his training and guidance.
4. Be kind to your brother and sister because he/she is your hand (helper) and your power. Help him against the enemy and be his well wisher.
5. Respect your teacher and be polite in his assembly (session) and listen carefully to his words. Do not talk loudly before him. If somebody questions him about something do not reply before he does although you may know the answer to that (question).
6. Respect your neighbour and help and assist him. If you happen to observe a fault or sin of him do hide it and when he slips (commits sin) admonish him.
7. Be just in your conduct and behaviour with friend and love him as he loves you.
If he makes up his mind to commit a sin stop him from that and always be a blessing for him, not a torment for him.
Imam's (A.S.) Martyrdom
At last after bearing grief's and inconveniences the magnanimous and great Imam (A.S.) was poisoned and martyred by Hasham Ibn-e-Abdul Malik on 25th of Moharram, 95th Hijrah and was buried in the graveyard of Baqi, beside the grave of Imam Hassan (A.S.) and today his gave is the site of visit for the lovers and adorers of his path.
i try to say only facts
Joined: 17 November 2012
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|Posted: 23 March 2014 at 1:11am|
Name: Muhammad bin Ali (a.s.)
Laqab (Title): Al Jawad
Birth: He was born at Madina in 195 A.H.
Martyrdom: He died of poison at Baghdad in the year 220 A.H. and is buried near his grandfather at Kazimiyyah in Iraq.
The Prophet (PBUH) had said:
"My father be sacrificed on the mother of the 9th Imam who will be a pure and pious Nubian."
Imam Musa Kazim (PBUH) had told one of his companions that his daughter-in-law (Sabika) would be one of the most pious of women and to give her his salaams. She came from the same tribe as the Prophet's wife - Mary Copt who bore the Prophet his son Ibrahim (who died in infancy).
Imam Muhammad taqi (PBUH) was born when his father was 45 years old. Till then Imam Reza (PBUH) had constantly been taunted that he had no children. When the 9th Imam was born, a brother of Imam Reza (PBUH) was angry because he would lose out in inheriting the Imam's property and in his jealousy spread a rumor that Imam Reza (PBUH) was not the father. He was eventually proved wrong by a person who could tell parentage.
The 9th Imam was 5 years old when his father was called to Tous(a city in Iran) by Ma'muon Rashid to be his "crown prince". When Imam Reza (PBUH) was leaving he saw his son putting sand in his hair. He asked why and the young Imam replied that this was what an orphan did.
His titles, life & works
He became an Imam at the age of 9. Ma'muon Rashid thought that as all the rulers before him had oppressed the Imams and their schemes had backfired that he would try to bribe the Imams. He tried to make the 8th Imam his crown prince and give him power and wealth but that also backfired.
He now tried to use power and wealth with the 9th Imam again but from a much younger age thinking that he would be able to influence him. His main purpose was also to make sure that the 12th Imam (whom he knew would bring justice to the world) would be from his progeny and therefore intended to marry his daughter Ummul Fazl to the Imam. Ma'muon still continued oppressing the family and followers of the Ahlul-bayt (PBUT).
Ma'muon called the young Imam (PBUH) to Baghdad from Medina and offered his daughter. This infuriated his family (Abbasids). To prove to them the excellence of Imam even at a young age he arranged a meeting between Imam and the most learned of men at that time -Yahya bin Athkam.
It was a grand occasion with some 900 other scholars present. Imam (PBUH) was first asked by Yahya:
What is the compensation (kaffara) for a person in Ehraam who hunted and killed his prey?"
Imam replied that there were many more details required before he could answer the question:
Did the Muhrim (one in Ehraam) hunt in the haram or outside?
Did the Muhrim know Sharia or not?
Did he hunt intentionally or not?
Did he hunt for the first time or was this one of many times?
WPBUH he free or a slave?
WPBUH his prey a bird or an animal?
WPBUH it big or small?
Had he hunted by day or by night?
WPBUH he baligh or not?
WPBUH he repentant or not?
WPBUH his ehraam for Hajj or Umra?
Yahya was stunned. He looked down and started sweating .I suggest u to find debate of imam Reza with scientists too.it was very wonderful .Zainab (AS) had very excellent speeches ,too.
Ma'muon asked the young Imam to answer the question, which he did, and then Imam asked Yayha a question which he could not answer. The Abbasids admitted defeat and Ma'muon took the opportunity to offer his daughter to Imam. Imam (PBUH) read his own Nikah (the khutba of which is used today) with the Mehr of 500 dirhams. Imam wrote a letter to Ma'muon that he would also give Ummul Fazl Mehr from the wealth of The World to Come (Aakhira ). This was in the form of 10 duas which were for fulfilling any hajaat (desires) Thus his title is Al-Jawad (the generous one).
* These duas are found in Mafatihul Jinaan (pg 447 - In margin)
Imam lived for a year inBaghdad with Ummul Fazl. She was very disobedient to Imam. When she found out that Imam had another wife (from the progeny of Ammar-e-Yasir) and that there were also children, she was jealous and angry realizing that her father's plan had failed. She complained to her father who also realized that his plan, to keep the 12th Imam in his progeny, had failed. He was enraged and in his rage he drank heavily and went to the 9th Imam's house and attacked Imam with a sword. Both Ummul Fazl and a servant saw the attack and believed Imam was dead. Ma'muon on waking next morning realized the consequences of his attack and was thinking of arranging the disposal of Imam's body when he saw Imam well without a scratch on him. He was confused and asked Imam who showed him an amulet which is called Hirze Jawad. Imam told him it was from his grand mother Bibi Fatima Zahra (PBUH) and kept the wearer safe from all except the angel of death. Ma'muon asked Imam for it and Imam gave him one.
Now Ma'muon was scared and tried a new tactic. He tried to deviate Imam by sending him beautiful girls and musicians. When he realized nothing was working he let Imam return toMedina.
Imam used this time to prepare the masails of Taqleed and Ijtihaad in preparation for the 12th Imam knowing that both the 10th and the 11th Imam would spend most of their lives in prison. He also prepared the people of Medina teaching true Islam knowing that this would be the last time they would be able to receive guidance directly from an Imam for a long time.
Ummul Fazl continuously complained of Imam to her father who sent her letters back.
Ma'muon died in 218 a.h. and was succeeded by his brother Mo'tasam Billah. He openly announced that all Shias were not Muslims. He said it was required for people to kill and prosecute Shias and to destroy property belonging to Shias.
Ummul Fazl now started complaining to her uncle who was sympathetic to her. Mo'tasam called Imam toBaghdad. He asked Imam to pass judgment of how to punish a thief. Imam said only fingers could be cut as the palms were for Allah (PBUH in Qur'an - it is one of the wajib parts to touch the ground during sajda). PBUH this decision was contrary to the decision of the other Scholars and it strengthened the position of the Shias. The other scholars complained to Mo'tasam.
Death & Burial
With instigation from both the scholars and Ummul Fazl, Mo'tasam sent poison which Ummul Fazl put in Imam's drink and gave it to him.then she ordered to her servants to applause and dance until people didn’t understand what happened,our imam asked her some water but she didn’t attention to him. Imam died on 29th Dhulqa'ada at the age of 25 years.his wife ordered that put his body on the roof of home and after 3 days when birds gathered near his holy body and friends of Imam were in doubt for his absence ,she ordered to hurtle his body on the floor. he is buried near his grandfather in Kadhimain. His son the 10th Imam, Imam Hadi (PBUH) buried him.
Summary of Imam's Work
It is he who prepared and wrote books for the masails of Ijtihaad and Taqleed which were essential to prepare believers for the ghaibat of the 12th Imam.
i try to say only facts
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Note: The 99 names of Allah avatars are courtesy of www.arthafez.com