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|Topic: Destruction of stars and formation of Black Holes|
Joined: 02 November 2013
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| Topic: Destruction of stars and formation of Black Holes
Posted: 02 November 2013 at 7:36am
With the name of God the Entirely Merciful, the Especially Merciful
The Quran swears by destruction of stars and the subsequent formation of black holes to prove it is sent by God. (In 53:1 An oath by the destruction of stars is taken, In 56:75-76 An oath by the enormity of this event is taken, In 81:15-18 Formation of black holes which form after the destruction of giant stars and the fact that matter and light cannot escape is mentioned) - Below are the specific ayaat:
53:1: By the star when it Hawa (destructs, blows up)
53:2: Has neither Dalla (gone astray), Your Companion (Muhammad Blessings and Peace of God be upon him) nor Ghawa (nor is being misled)
53:3: Nor does he speak from Hawa (emotion)
53:4: It is not but a Wahi (revelation, inspiration) Yuha (revealed, inspired)
56:75: Fa (So) La (No), uqsimu (I swear, I take an oath) by the mawaq'i (occurrences, events) of the Nujuum (stars)
56:76: And indeed, it is surely an oath - if you knew - Azeem (tremendous, A supernova is a tremendous event during which more energy may be released than the Sun will in its entire life span)
56:77: That (this) is indeed a recital Kareem (honorable, the Qur'an in Arabic).
56:78: In a Book kept Maknoon (hidden).
56:79: Which (that Book with God) none can touch but the Mutaharoon (purified, the angels, the book in which is pre-written everything that will occur)
56:80: (It is) a tanzeel (sending down of revelation) from the Lord of the Alameen (human beings and Jinn (another creation given the gift of speech))
56:81: Then is it to this statement that you are Mudhinoon (indifferent)
56:82: And make (the thanks) for your provision that you Tukaziboon (lie about the Provider)
56:83: Then why (do you) not, when (death) reaches the Hulqoom (throat)
56:84: And you are at that time Tanzuroon (looking on)
56:85: And we (angels) are nearer to him than you, but you do not Tubsiroon (see)
56:86: Then why (do you) not, if you are not to be Madineen (recompensed, punished or rewarded)
56:87: Bring it (the soul) back, if you are Sadiqeen (truthful?)
56:88: If (the deceased) was of the Muqarabeen (close to God, from the foremost in doing good works)
56:89: Then (for him is) rauh and rayhan and a garden of Naeem (pleasure)
56:90: And if he was of the Ashab Al-Yameen (people of the right)
56:91: Then salam (safety from all bad things, paradise as well) for you, from the Ashab Al-Yameen.
56:92: But if he was from the Mukazibeen (liars and who were) Daaleen (astray, e.g. people with lots of money who didn't care about the starving)
56:93: Then (for him is) accommodation of Hameem (intensely hot scalding water)
56:94: And burning in Jaheem (intense Hellfire)
56:95: Verily, this! This is Haq-ul-Yaqeen (the Truth with certainty)
56:96: Fa sabbih (So declare free from faults) the name of your Lord, Al-Azeem (Tremendous)
81:15: Fa (So) La (No), uqsimu (I swear, I take an oath) by Khunnas (drawn together objects) (When a massive star destructs, it subsequently draws together i.e. 10 times the mass of the sun is drawn to within a 30 km diameter in the stellar category of black holes)
81:16: Those that run (their courses) and Kunnas (sweep whatever is in their path, matter cannot escape)
81:17: And the night as it us'us (the darkness of a black hole is different than regular darkness)
81:18: And the light as it Tanaffus (As it gets pulled in, even light cannot escape)
81:19: Verily, this is the Word (this Qur'an brought by) a messenger Kareem (honourable, Jibrael (Gabriel), from God to the last human messenger)
81:20: (Who is) possessed of power and with the Owner of the Arsh (uppermost construction in heaven), Makeen (secure in position),
81:21: Obeyed there (in the heavens) and Ameen (trustworthy)
81:22: And your companion is not (at all) Majnoon (mad)
81:23: And he has already seen him (Gabriel) in the horizon Mubeen (clear)
81:24: And he (the last messenger) is not with the unseen Daneen (a with-holder, concealer of knowledge)
81:25: And it (the Qur'an) is not the word of Satan, Rajeem (expelled from the heavens).
81:26: So where are you Tazhaboon (going?)
81:27: It (the Quran) is not except a remembrance for the Alameen
81:28: For whoever wills among you that (he or she) Yastaqeem (stay straight, do what is right and avoid straying from what is right)
81:29: And you will not, except (it be) that Allah wills - Lord of the Alameen.
You may verify the words above using an arabic-english lexicon visit: http://tyndalearchive.com/tabs/lane/ or http://www.studyquran.co.uk/PRLonline.htm or corpus.quran.com
Joined: 19 April 2010
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|Posted: 06 December 2013 at 8:48am|
The Quran knows nothing about how stars work. Neither does the Bible. Even Greek scientists knew little about stars. Reading modern knowledge about stars into certain verses is nonsense. The ancient people experienced earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. That's probably where the notion of hellfires came from.
Edited by Matt Browne - 06 December 2013 at 8:49am
A religion that's intolerant of other religions can't be the world's best religion --Abdel Samad
Great minds discuss ideas. Average minds discuss events. Small minds discuss people--Eleanor Roosevelt
Joined: 18 May 2016
Location: United States
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|Posted: 28 May 2016 at 4:20am|
New details about what happens when a black hole tears apart a star have been gathered by a trio of orbiting X-ray telescopes, giving scientists an extraordinary opportunity to understand the extreme environment around a black hole.
When a star comes too close to a black hole, the intense gravity of the black hole results in tidal forces that can rip the star apart. In these events, called “tidal disruptions,” some of the stellar debris is flung outward at high speeds, while the rest falls toward the black hole. This causes a distinct X-ray flare that can last for a few years.
NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory, Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer, and ESA/NASA’s XMM-Newton collected different pieces of this astronomical puzzle in a tidal disruption event called ASASSN-14li, originally discovered in an optical search by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) in November 2014.
The event occurred near a supermassive black hole estimated to weigh a few million times the mass of the sun. The black hole is located in the center of PGC 043234, a galaxy that lies about 290 million light years from Earth. This makes this event the closest tidal disruption discovered in a decade.
“We have seen evidence for a handful of tidal disruptions over the years and have developed a lot of ideas of what goes on,” said Jon Miller of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, who led the study that is described in a paper published in the latest issue of Nature. “This one is the best chance we have had so far to really understand what happens when a black hole shreds a star.”
After the star is destroyed, the black hole’s strong gravitational force pulls most of the remains of the star toward it. This infalling debris is heated to millions of degrees and generates a huge amount of X-ray light. Soon after this surge of X-rays, the amount of light decreases as the material falls beyond the black hole's event horizon, the point beyond which no light can escape.
Gas often falls toward black holes by spiraling inward in a disk. But how this process starts has remained a mystery. In ASASSN-14li, astronomers were able to witness the formation of such a disk by looking at the X-ray light at different wavelengths (known as the "X-ray spectrum") and tracking how that changed over time.
The researchers determined that the X-rays being produced come from material that is either very close to or is actually in the smallest possible stable orbit around the black hole.
“The black hole tears the star apart and starts swallowing material really quickly, but that’s not the end of the story,” said co-author Jelle Kaastra of the Institute for Space Research in the Netherlands. “The black hole can’t keep up that pace so it expels some of the material outwards.”
The X-ray data also suggest the presence of a wind moving away from the black hole. The wind is not moving fast enough to escape the black hole’s gravitational grasp. An alternative explanation for the relatively low speed is that gas from the disrupted star is following an elliptical orbit around the black hole and is at the greatest distance from the black hole where it is traveling the slowest.
“These results support some of our newest ideas for the structure and evolution of tidal disruption events,” said Cole Miller, a co-author from the University of Maryland in College Park. “In the future, tidal disruptions can provide us with laboratories to study the effects of extreme gravity.”
Astronomers are hoping to find more events like ASASSN-14li, which they can use to continue to test theoretical models about how black holes affect their environments and anything that might wander too close.
These results appear in the October 22 issue of the journal Nature. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra's science and flight operations. Swift is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. XMM-Newton is a joint NASA-European Space Agency orbiting observatory.
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