Who is Muhammad?

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“Perhaps the world was never in greater need of an accurate account of Prophet Muhammad’s life than it is now.” So states Adil Salahi, author of Muhammad: Man and Prophet 1. After 9/11, for whatever reason(s), many people began asking themselves: Just who is this Muhammad? As a result, awareness of Islam and the Prophet Muhammad has increased considerably. And yet so many people still do not really know who he was and what legacy he left behind. The recent infamous caricatures are a further reminder that many people’s understanding about Muhammad is indeed flawed and far from the facts. 

Such a lack of knowledge is, however, rather surprising, for unlike most other prophets or religious personalities whose life stories are full of myths and legends, Muhammad lived in the full light of history. Almost every aspect of his life was recorded by those who lived with him and knew him intimately, and so we do not have to guess at what he said or did. When we read this vast body of literature, we can see that he was a man of exalted character and compassion, one who was kind and considerate to all people, regardless of how they treated him, and even to animals and plants. His revolutionary message changed not only his own society, but the very course of history, facts that even his bitterest enemies have acknowledged. Today, more than 1,400 years later, more than 1.5 billion people revere him and follow him as God’s last messenger. 

The veneration of Muhammad is not limited to his followers, however. Many great philosophers, thinkers, and reformers have praised him and said that it would be to humanity’s great benefit to follow his teachings. George Bernard Shaw called him “the savior of humanity” and said: “I believe that if a man like him were to assume the dictatorship of the modern world, he would succeed in solving its problems in a way that would bring it much needed peace and happiness.” 2 Echoing him, French historian Lamartine wrote: “As regards all standards by which human greatness may be measured, we may well ask, is there any man greater than he?” 3 Similar statements were made by Thomas Carlyle, Edward Gibbon, and Mahatma Gandhi, to name only a few. 

Born in Makka in 570, Muhammad grew up as an orphan: his father died before he was born, and his mother died when he was only six years of age. He remained unlettered along with most of his contemporaries. But His noble and upright character, as displayed in his dealings with people while he was growing up, raised his status so high in the eyes of his fellows that they nicknamed him al-Ameen (the Trustworthy) long before he was chosen by God as His final messenger. Only after Muhammad declared his prophet-hood did the Makkan polytheists turn against him. 

When the Makkan leaders unleashed their hostility against him and his companions, he could still be heard saying: “O Allah! Forgive my people, for they don’t know.” For example, when he went to Ta’if, a village about 50 miles southeast of his hometown, Makkah, to spread Islam, they set the street urchins upon him, who chased him and threw rocks at him until they drove him out of town. Even at that point, when he was utterly exhausted and bleeding from head to foot, all he said was, “O my Lord, guide my people along the true path, as they are ignorant of the truth.” This is just one of the many examples in the life of the Prophet who faced constant death threats, actual attempts on his life, and abuse and humiliation at the hands of those threatened by his simple yet profound message: there is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger. 

Prophet Muhammad’s
Mosque in Madinah

When the Makkan Quraish forced him and his companions to leave Makkah, the prophet migrated to Madinah. Even in Madinah, the Prophet and his followers were not left alone to practice their religion. The Makkan leaders rallied forces to eliminate him and his followers. It was in this context that the Prophet took up arms to defend himself and his followers. Yet, while doing so, he never compromised the sacred principle of sanctity of life and the ethics of just war. He never allowed the killing of anyone except those involved in the fighting; he issued clear orders against killing of civilians, including women, children, and even those who were engaged in worship of any kind. Later when Muhammad prevailed over the Quraish and conquered Makkah, he pardoned his enemies and let them go free.

Today no matter how Islamophobes taunt him or label Islam, the fact is that Prophet Muhammad never preached violence. It is simply mind-boggling that he would be made responsible for any individual Muslim’s misreading of his message or committing any mischief in the name of Islam. Contrary to the widely held notion in the west, the very concept of ‘holy war’ even does not exist in Islam. According to Islam, war can only be characterized as either just or unjust, not holy. The Qur’an is categorical in denouncing all wars of aggression. “And fight in God’s cause against those who wage war against you, but do not commit aggression-for, verily, God does not love aggressions.” (Quran 2:190) The Qur’an also forbids Muslims from attacking anyone who allows others to live in peace. “Thus, if they let you be, and do not make war on you, and offer you peace, God does not allow you to harm them.” (Quran 4:90)

As a matter of fact, Muhammad preached mercy and respect to all of God’s creation. His heart was filled with love for people irrespective of their caste, creed, color or gender. He advised his Companions to regard all people as their brothers and sisters. He said, “You are all Adam’s offspring and Adam was born of clay.” The Prophet is also reported to have said, “By God, he is not a believer, by God, he is not a believer, by God, he is not a believer, with whom his neighbors are not secure.” The Prophet never ever tolerated any indecent manner, let alone any injustice done to anybody. He warned the Muslims against the mistreatment of non-Muslims in a Muslim-dominated land by saying: “Whoever oppresses the non-Muslim subjects, shall find me to be their (oppressed people’s) advocate on the Day of Judgment (against the oppressing Muslims)”. He also said, “Those who commit injustice upon people in this world will be the most losers in the hereafter and will find their place in the Hellfire.” The Prophet thus taught people how to live among others like flowers, not like thorns. 

The Prophet’s own example was testified by Anas ibn Malik, who served the Prophet for ten years. He said that the Prophet never ever rebuked him. “When I did something, he never questioned my manner of doing it; and when I did not do something, he never questioned my failure to do it. He was the most good-natured of all men.” Indeed, the Prophet was an extremely tender-hearted person. “Repel evil with good” was his dictum and policy. He was considerate to his family and friends. He was a loving father, a generous husband and a caring neighbor. His gentleness, dignified demeanor, his universal benevolence and courtesy, his equal treatment of friends and strangers, the powerful and the weak and his generosity to the latter naturally endeared him to those who came in touch with him, and gained him respect, love and admiration. He was the exemplifier and embodiment of all the best a person can think of or aspire to be.

In short, Muhammad preached a religion, founded a state, laid down a moral code and brought all out reforms. His sublime teachings have passed the test of time and place in that these are universal values sought after by mankind in all ages and places. Following his footsteps is the surest way to establish “kingdom of God” on the earth once again. 

The world has witnessed many prophets including the towering figures of Abraham, Moses and Jesus (peace and blessings of God be upon them all), and Muhammad paid high tributes to all of them and made it incumbent upon his followers to do the same. Many great thinkers, philosophers and leaders also made great contributions to human civilization, but none of them superseded the achievements and impacts of Muhammad . His greatness is truly unique. A mercy to the mankind, he is the most remarkable man ever set foot on this earth.

How can anyone mock and malign such an icon of history–someone who is the pride of whole humanity? Surely, it’s either ignorance or prejudice which is breeding this sort of bigotry. It’s also an insult on human conscience and intelligence. 

Muhammad , the man, is the greatest testimony to the truth he preached. Let us know this man, explore his truths and make this world a better place to live in.


The author is the editor of The Message International. He can be contacted at editor@messageonline.org


1. Published by Islamic Foundation, Leicester in 2002, a seminal biography on the Prophet.

2. The Genuine Islam, Singapore, Vol. 1, No. 8, 1936

3. Histoire de la Turquie Paris: 1854

Recommended Reading

What do they say about Prophet Muhammad?

The Role of Muhammad

Muhammad The Prophet

Muhammad in the Bible

Muhammad and the West

The Seven Phases of Prophet Muhammad’s Life

The Prophet of Mercy

Why the Western urge to ridicule the Prophet?


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  1. tThe question posed is who is Muhammad? The simple answer is he is the Universal Prophet,guide,model for all the humanity.Whatever your profession and whoever you are Rasulullah was a model for you and for the entire mankind.Let us begin with our respective leaders whether President,Prime Minister a King Governor,member of Parliament or any elected unelected representative.You will find role model in the person of Prophet Muhammad.

    Although he was a King but never behaved like the Kings or the so called arrogant ignorant leaders who are intoxiticated with with power.He was the role model Commander of the Muslim Army,Judge,teacher husband father brother neighbour,the most Godfearing person on the earth who knew Allah more than anybody,the best reciter of the Quran Qari Hafiz although he could not read or write as Ummiy yet became the best teacher.He travelled in the space during Miraj like an astraunat though he was not exactly one of them his title was Muhammadur Rasulullah.He was the most articulate speaker yet he never spoke much eventhough when he spoke he made his point so clearly.He was the one who helped brought people out of darkness of worshipping creations other than Creator yet he never ascribed himself or nybody equal to God.He was the final Messenger sent to the entire mankind for their guidance like all others. Adam,Noah,Abraham,Moses,Jesus,Joseh,Jacob Isaac David Solomon,Ishmael Job and other Prophets were all sent for the guidance of mankind.Non of them ever said that he should be worshipped.So Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W) came to make it clear thereby brought the Sahabah out of Jahiliyya to the Nuur of Islam.The Simple message of Prophet Muhammmad is there is no God but God and Muhammad is the final Messenger of God that is the teachings of Prophet Muhammad an example to the whole humanity.May Allah give us taufiq to follow this unlettered who would surely bring us out of darkness of Kufr and Shirk disbelief which is the worst cancer facing mankind.

  2. Assalamu Allaikum,

    “jazakaalahu khair” for the comprehensive and beautifully narrated article on beloved prophet Muhammad (Peace and blessings be upon him).

  3. Praise is due to God, Lord of the Universe & Infinite Peace/Blessings be upon His Messenger & Servant, none other than The Most Honourable, Muhammad & His companions & His Family. May Allah bless me with the job to be Muhammad’s servant for ALL eternity in the afterlife. Peace be Upon you oh Beloved of God!

  4. as salaamu alaikum.Al-Hamdu lillah Muhammad(pbuh) was a model for all of mankind.he was given a message for the whole of mankind also.many Christians do not know who he was and why he came.we as muslims must continue to preach and show by example.we don,t need to put down our Christian brethren but lead to to the right path.

    as salaamu alaikum HASSIEM

  5. All praises are due to Allah , who created you and me.All praises are due to Allah who gave all the Ummah of the Prophet peace be upon him knowledge.May Allah Taala giv us and the whole Ummah Knowledge and May Allah Taala keep you in very good business.Ameen.Summa Ameen!!!

  6. Um Yusuf

    I am not commenting about the article I was answering to Kelly, in which she picture “WEST” as happen to pass by and seeing Muslim fighting by surprise. We all know western powers are the actual perpetrators.

    If we are weak doesn’t give others any right to attack our land and occupy our resources.

  7. SALAAM;I just want to say, that I don’t understand,being a revertand understanding many of the WESTERN evils, why in such articlesMuslims never say that the terroristare taking these actions because of the evil that the West is spreading.I mean, even AMericans of open mind believe this. My theory is that most people of the Earth,including muslims, need the good and evil that is the West. It is impossible to keep living in the bubble. Yet untilwe come together, one end of the muslim society will always fight for the Islam that is of the Middle East.And that is a good thing. And that is what Allah decrees. Letnot muslims be afraid to assert this mean thought, when it is true that WESTERNERS freely harbor and express mean thoughts about others. But it shows the justicein Muslims hearts that they want to try to not sound mean to anyone. Yet eventually we will all have to acknowledge that the terroristwere fighting in the will of Allah. And we are where we are today because we all express our love and hate.

    JazakAllah khayr

  8. Brother Saif

    Precisely. The war could not have happen if Muslim were not in such sorry state in the first place. We are weak, our Iman is weak, we are not together, thus we oppress ourselves and those around us. There is no conspiracy against Muslim by the West. Stop blaming other people for our own weaknesses. One finger pointing at others there are 4 pointing back at us. Once we stop oppressing ourselves and change our situation only then we will be strong, and gain respect from others.

  9. I will never forget what this brother(Khaamer) from Iran wrote in his comment, a small line but very heavy :-

    “We learn to read the arabic Koran but they read the Koran to learn. “

  10. Good, well-written article. But I’d like to say something on this line – “they nicknamed him al-Ameen (the Trustworthy) long before he was chosen by God as His final messenger.” . Something important I’d like to comment on this line. Mohammed(saas) was chosen by God even long before Mohammed(saas) was born. He was mentioned in Towraat and Injeel that were revealed long before. A huge jewish migration took place from Syria-palestine to arabian desert during the dayz of the prophet’s birth becuz those jews were expecting for mosheakh. All prophets and messengers were chosen by God before they were born, God let some know that he is God’s prophet earlier (like Jesus in his birth) and some other to know later in their life. I’d put it this way – they nicknamed him al-Ameen (the Trustworthy) long before he had found out he is God’s final messenger in mount Hira.

    I totally agree with Kelly. Vast majority of muslim world today dont even know their greatest wealth Islam , let alone knowing the last messenger. Yes we should know about the last messenger but most importantly muslims should at least try to know the only untouched unchanged revealation, God’s protected word – The Holy Koran. In my mind, the greatest difference between us(the muslims today) and the early glorious muslims (who conquered romans, persia etc… invented science etc…) is :-

    We learn to read the arabic Koran but they read the Koran to learn .

  11. I totally agree with Kelly. As Muslim claimed their love and respect for Prophet Muhammad pbuh but act in manners that often times contrary to what he stands for. Before we preached it to others we need to preach it first to our family, friends and community members.

  12. kelly, you are right. muslims like any other people of faith, have inherited a lot of junk over the ages. indoctrinated by the religous elite who are proped up by the ruling elite of the day – and to this day – in order to keep the masses as followers not as thinkers. that is what kept us in check so that the ruling elite continue ruling without opposition aided by the rilgious elite. keep people in darkness and they will never see the light. once they see the light then they will question authority and that is not good for business. just follow your heart and read the quran. be at peace with yourself for what you have found and The Almighty will show you the way. Allah truly speaks to us directly through The Quran. Peace. this posting may be radical for some and i hope this website posts it.

  13. Good article Brother…the Prophet Sallalahu Alihay wa Salam [SAS] is of impeccable character. There is no match; past, present or to come. Allah Subhana Hu Wa Tala states clearly in the Holy Quran that Prophet Muhammad [SAS] came as a Mercy to All Mankind and seal of All Prophets. We are commanded by Allah Subhana Hu Wa Tala to follow His [SAS] blessed examples if our ultimate goal is to achieve bliss in the Akhira. How much more ignorant could man become for not wanting to know Him and follow His Ways let alone trying to dishonor Him Sallalahu Alihay wa Salam. May Allah Subhana Hu Wa Tala continues to Bless the Prophet Sallalahu Alihay wa Salam and may Allah Subhana Hu Wa Tala take us [whom He Allah Subhana Hu Wa Tala wishes] out of the darkness and show us His Noor of Guidance.

    Shah Ally

  14. Sister Kelly,

    What you see today (the wars) are not started by Muslims. Be in Kashmir, Chechnya, Palestine, Iraq or Bosnia. If you go to the facts they are all started by Non-Muslims and they are the aggressors and occupiers.

    Because Muslim right now are not under one Khalifah, they are having difficulty getting their act together.

    I think we can all do something to defeat the aggressors and occupiers where ever we are.

    Inshallah, the hard times will be over and Islam will be dominant again.

  15. Asalamu Alaikum brothers and sisters,

    It was a great pleasure reading the article. My thanks to the author for his effort especially in a time when there is no line of distinction between freedom of expression and moral responsibility. Hopefully, the bashers of islam will get the message that islam and the Prophet after all stand for nothing less than peace, harmony, and brotherhood/sisterhood.

    Thank you.

  16. This is best article i have ever read, very beautifully written the whole history of Prophet Mohammad Sallal Laahu allaihi Wa Sallaam(peace be upon him)in a vew lines. Todays youths questions r answered in this article. I dont think anyone would dare say a word against such a peace loving,kind hearted n ever forgiving Prophet Muhammad Sallal Laahu Alaihi Wa Sallam.May Allaah guide the human being into following the foot steps of our Prophet Muhammad Sallal Laahi Wa alaihi Wa Sallam. Ameen.